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In Remembrance Of His Lifelong Friendship With Charles Darwin

Darwin, who was careful in other things, generally omitted the date in familiar correspondence, and it is often only by treating a letter as a detective studies a crime that we can make sure of its date. Fortunately, however, Sir Joseph Hooker and others of Darwin's correspondents were accustomed to add the date on which the letters were received. This sometimes leads to an inaccuracy which needs a word of explanation. Thus a letter which Mr. Darwin dated Wednesday might be headed by us Wednesday January 3rd, 1867 , the latter half being the date on which the letter was received if it had been dated by the writer it would have been Wednesday, January 2nd, 1867.

The Role of Meta Analyses and Literature Reviews

To begin evaluating a review, the practitioner should ask two questions does it ask a carefully focused clinical question, and is the method for including studies reasonable and appropriate The latter question can be expanded as follows are methodological standards articulated (for example, those laid out in this chapter), and do the studies chosen address the research question articulated by the reviewer Stating inclusion criteria up front helps avoid any biases toward preconceived conclusions a reviewer might hold. Aspects of oncology studies to keep in mind when reviewing a review are outcomes (as described previously) and latency periods. Review writers should demonstrate that they exhaustively searched appropriate bibliographic databases (such as Medline), but also that they contacted experts in the area who might be aware not only of published studies not yet appearing in Medline, but of unpublished studies this is important because studies with negative findings are less likely...

Fifty Years of Revolution

Unlike Watson and Crick's discovery, genetic engineering quickly attracted the attention of nonscientists as well as scientists. Writers such as Jeremy Rifkin, the president of the Foundation on Economic Trends, warned that this new technology might create microbes that would cause unstoppable epidemics or other dangerous life-forms. Many later genetic engineering projects also drew criticism from ethicists, religious leaders, politicians, and others.

Claimsdriven Multifunctionality

Similarly, copy writers may dissect a single performance benefit to make it sound more impressive. For example, advertising claims that describe a product's ability to soften and smooth hair, and make it more manageable, are essentially referring to the single technical benefit of conditioning. While this distinction might seem unimportant to the formulator, it is of paramount importance to marketers because it allows them to differentiate their product from the competition. Formulators should strive to leverage their knowledge of formula characteristics and look for hidden claims that may be useful in marketing. Chemists need to recognize that it is not necessary to base every claim to multifunctionality on quantifiable performance differences.

Paroxysmal Forms of Chorea

Intermittent or episodic sudden attacks of dystonia, chorea and ballismus or their combination, with preserved consciousness and without abnormalities between attacks, are referred to as paroxysmal movement disorders 116 . Four different forms can be distinguished depending on the main triggering factors, as classified by Demirkiran and Jankovic 34 . These include paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias (PKD) typically triggered by sudden movements paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesias (PNKD) classically triggered by alcohol, coffee, hunger, fatigue and emotions paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesias (PED) which are induced by prolonged or sustained exercise and paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesias (PHD) during non-REM sleep. Duration of attacks varies from seconds (PKD and PHD) to hours (PNKD and PED). Age of onset is between 6 months and 79 years. Recent genetic studies revealed mutation in the MR-1 gene on chromosome 2q33-35 encoding for the myofibrillogenesis regulator gene in the PNKD...

Required Writing Manuals

Although neither book addresses scientific writing in particular, we recommend these two books to students who want to improve their writing skills. Generations of writers have studied Strunk and White, which has become a classic. It is short and packed with good advice. Line by Line is filled with examples of poorly written sentences together with improved versions. Cook illustrates a number of common mistakes and shows how a professional copy editor would fix them. Most students will benefit from reading this book.

Context and measurement

Concern with context in the social sciences was central to the Geisteswissenschaften and the problem of meaning was discussed widely in Germany in the late nineteenth century.(5) The ideas were introduced into sociology by Max Weber(6) and into psychiatry by Karl Jaspers,(7) although none of these early writers showed how to apply the methods systematically to concrete examples 8) Jaspers, in his Allegemeine Psychopathologie, emphasized the way in which Verstehen, or understanding, on the part of an investigator 'depends primarily on the tangible facts' (i.e. verbal contents, cultural factors, people's acts, ways of life and expressive gestures) in terms of which the connection is understood, and which provides the objective data.(7) While this view influenced the approach to meaning in what follows, there is one major difference. No attempt has been made to extend the method to make a link between a particular set of circumstances so defined and the development of a particular...

Jungs contributions to psychotherapy

Jung introduced a technique which became known as 'active imagination,' in which the patient was instructed to suspend judgement and enter a state of reverie. Whatever phantasies then occurred were to be written down, painted, sculpted, or recorded in any fashion preferred by the patient. Whereas Freud regarded phantasy as an escape from reality, Jung held it in high regard, and referred to his technique as 'developing the creative possibilities latent in the patient himself'. (4 Although Jung specifically forbade his patients to regard their phantasy productions as works of art, he was in fact inducing the state of mind which most writers and composers describe as the one in which new creative ideas occur to them. Jung's initiative is largely responsible for the widespread development of departments of art therapy in mental hospitals.

Serving as a standard or a model

'Classic' in its classical sense is borrowed from the Romans. 'Classici' were citizens who possessed a substantial income. The word was used also to refer to the armed forces, and 'classicum' was the trumpet call signalling the battle. The Latin author Aulus Gellius (second century ad) was probably the first to refer to writers of worth and distinction as classic writers (Saint-Beuve 1850). The French philologist Littre later adapted the term to refer to literary works 'used in the classes of colleges and schools' (Harvey 1937). 'Classical' then became the adjective used when reference was made to the arts and literature of ancient Greece and Rome 1. St Augustine's philosophy of memory, book 10 in his autobiographical Confessions ( 400). Augustine (354-430), a prominent Christian philosopher (Colish 1997), and a marvellous writer, composed his autobiography in the service of theology. Embedded in it is a gem of introspective psychology. Augustine was not the first in antiquity to...

Objections to the proposed solution 5 Meaning is in human activity not the brain

It is based in what may be called a Wittgensteinian view of language and meaning, as being essentially involved in human activity, although it should be said that this is a post-modern view generally, found in many other writers (e.g. Merleau-Ponty 1945 Gadamer 1960 Habermas 1971).

Sociocultural Influences

The notion that many of the pathological patterns observed today can best be ascribed to the perverse, chaotic, or frayed conditions of our cultural life has been voiced by many commentators of the social scene (Fromm, 1955 Millon, 1987 Millon & Davis, 1996 Riesman, 1950 Wachtel, 1983 Yankelovich, 1981) these conditions have been characterized in phrases such as the age of anxiety, growing up absurd, and the lonely crowd. It is not within the scope of this book to elaborate the themes implied in these slogans a brief description of three conditions of contemporary life suffices to provide some idea of what these writers are saying. First, we note the operation of forces that compel individuals to surpass the standards to which they were exposed in early life second, we point up the effects of changing, ambiguous, and contradictory social values and third, we describe the consequences of the disintegration of social beliefs and goals.

Accidental Scientists

Bishop joined the faculty of the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) as an assistant professor of microbiology in 1968. Varmus came to San Francisco in 1969 and met Bishop almost by accident, Varmus said to Science magazine writer Jean L. Marx in 1989. The two hit it off right away, Varmus told Marx, just

How Do People Infer Motives

Traditionally, philosophers and developmental psychologists (Goldman, 2001 Gopnik & Wellman, 1994) have proposed two process-related explanations to account for inferences about the mental states of others. One explanation suggests that perceivers mentally place themselves in the other person's shoes, attempting to simulate what the target thinks (simulation theory). The other explanation suggests that perceivers invoke general knowledge and implicit theories about other people to infer the target's mental states (implicit theory). In the past, writers have applied these theories to account for mental state inferences regarding the beliefs and feelings of others. Given the relative infancy of research on inferred motives, this chapter will start with the assumption that these processes are also at work when people make inferences about motives. In addition, we will suggest that each of these processes simulation and

Letter 33 To Th Huxley

I am very much obliged for your paper on the Mollusca (33 2. The paper of Huxley's is On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca, etc. ( Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Volume 143, Part I., 1853, page 29.)) I have read it all with much interest but it would be ridiculous in me to make any remarks on a subject on which I am so utterly ignorant but I can see its high importance. The discovery of the type or idea (33 3. Huxley defines his use of the word archetype at page 50 All that I mean is the conception of a form embodying the most general propositions that can be affirmed respecting the Cephalous Mollusca, standing in the same relation to them as the diagram to a geometrical theorem, and like it, at once, imaginary and true. ) (in your sense, for I detest the word as used by Owen, Agassiz & Co.) of each great class, I cannot doubt, is one of the very highest ends of Natural History and certainly most interesting to the worker-out. Several of your remarks have interested me I am, however,...

Environmental Protection

Scottish-born naturalist and writer John Muir advocated for preserving western lands as wilderness. He founded the first major environmental organization, the Sierra Club, in San Francisco in 1892. This group was and continues to be dedicated to the preservation of wilderness and natural areas.

Conducting a Genetic Orchestra

Researchers were amazed when Kenyon announced that changes in just two genes could postpone aging, even in a worm. Many scientists at the time believed that aging was the result of damage to cells and tissues that built up during a lifetime of use Essentially, bodies simply wore out. Other researchers thought, instead, that evolution had programmed aging and death into living things to keep organisms from wasting resources after they had stopped reproducing and therefore were no longer biologically useful. Almost no one believed that aging was directly controlled by genes or that anything could be done to extend lifespan or stop the breakdowns and diseases that usually accompany growing old. Kenyon, however, pointed out that bats, for example, can live for 50 years, whereas mice, which are also mammals and are about the same size as small bats, usually live for only two years. She insisted that genes could explain such differences. (Not all scientists agree. S. J. Olshansky of the...

Indications contraindications and selection procedures

Medical treatments normally have indications and contraindications. In psychodynamic treatment the term 'suitability' indicates a looser notion of the appropriateness of the approach.(48) Nevertheless, based primarily on clinical experience, some writers have arrived at specific criteria for long-term psychodynamic therapy. (49 Some authors have also suggested relatively systematic methods of assessment yielding both diagnostic and prognostic information. (50) The majority of psychodynamic clinicians, however, rely on clinical judgements based on interpersonal aspects of their first meeting with the patient. (39 The three areas of assessment are personal history, the content of the interview, and the style of the presentation.

Extension and Narrowing

In the case of Holmes' famous method, multiple clues (or, for our purposes, observed physical characteristics) are used to narrow the range of those who might be members of the identified group of suspects. In the ideal world, which was almost always attainable by Holmes through Conan Doyle's fictional devices, that range could be narrowed down to a single individual. Latter-day mystery writers, though, have preferred to keep intact a larger group of likely suspects until the very last pages of their books to heighten dramatic tension and then narrow the number one by one through logical arguments (usually conducted at a dinner party with all the suspects conveniently present) that refine the necessary and sufficient conditions for group membership until there is only one possible member of the group.

Final Thoughts Science

The cost of care, especially in the outpatient setting in the United States, can be very high, especially for older persons on Medicare and for the working poor. Marketing of a product the efficacy of which is based on poorly selected measurement criteria does not serve the patient well. Many times, expensive medications are given by desperate physicians to desperate patients despite modest efficacy. In reality, few are well served by this process except the pharmaceutical industry. The tendency is enhanced by the current practice in the United States of television advertising of medications to the public. There is no way such an approach can properly inform patients. The motive is profit first, and this, in the opinion of this writer, is unacceptable. I was told in the early 1960s, when considering medicine as a career, to take care of the patients and the income would take care of itself. This is still true.

A memory system in which new patterns are stored on top of previous ones

'Palimpsest' has been used as a metaphor for brain and mind by Romantic writers. 'What else than a natural and mighty palimpsest is the human brain Everlasting layers of ideas, images, feelings, have fallen upon your brain softly as light. Each succession has seemed to bury all that went before. And yet not one has been extinguished Yes, reader, countless are the mysterious hand-writing of grief or joy which have inscribed themselves successively upon the palimpsest of your brain' (De Quincey 1866). Postulated palimpsestic properties of biological memory systems were also contemplated by Freud (1925). Similarly, Gestalt psychologists have proposed that new memory records are inscribed on top of old ones (Koffka 1935).1 'Palimpsest' resurfaced in modern neurosciences with the introduction of models of artificial neural networks (Nadal et al. 1986 Amit 1989 Amit and Fusi 1994). In subclasses of such model networks, which keep a permanent capacity for learning, new patterns are stored on...

Letter 125 To Jd Hooker

Naudin's paper (126 1. Naudin's paper ( Revue Horticole, 1852) is mentioned in the Historical Sketch prefixed to the later editions of the Origin (Edition VI., page xix). Naudin insisted that species are formed in a manner analogous to the production of varieties by cultivators, i.e., by selection, but he does not show how selection acts under nature. In the Life and Letters, II., page 246, Darwin, speaking of Naudin's work, says Decaisne seems to think he gives my whole theory. ), but it does not seem to me to anticipate me, as he does not show how selection could be applied under nature but an obscure writer (126 2. The obscure writer is Patrick Matthew (see the Historical Sketch in the Origin. ) on forest trees, in 1830, in Scotland, most expressly and clearly anticipated my views--though he put the case so briefly that no single person ever noticed the scattered passages in his book.

Letter 155 To Hugh Falconer

The account which Falconer gives in the above-mentioned paper in the Nat. Hist. Review (January, 1863) would be amusing if the matter were less serious. In 1857 Falconer described ( Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. XIII.) a new species of fossil elephant from America, to which he gave the name Elephas Columbi, a designation which was recognised and adopted by Continental writers. In 1858 (Brit. Assoc. Leeds) Owen made use of the name Elephas texianus, Blake for the species which Falconer had previously named E. Columbi, but without referring to Falconer's determination he gave no authority, thus by the established usage in zoology producing it as his own. In 1861 Owen in his Palaeontology, 2nd edition, 1861, describes the elephant as E. texianus, Blake. To Mr. Blake's name is appended an asterisk which refers to a footnote to Bollaert's Antiquities of S. America, 2nd edition. According to Falconer (page 46) no second edition of Bollaert had appeared at the time of writing (August, 1862), and...

Letter 167 To Hw Bates

If you have not read Bates' book (171 2. Henry Walter Bates, The Naturalist on the River Amazons, 2 volumes, London, 1863. In a letter to Bates, April 18th, 1863, Darwin writes, It is the best work of natural history travels ever published in England ( Life and Letters, II., page 381.), I think it would interest you. He is second only to Humboldt in describing a tropical forest. (171 3. Quoted in Life and Letters, II., page 381.). Talking of reading, I have never got the Edinburgh (171 4. The Geological Evidence of the Antiquity of Man, by Sir Charles Lyell, and works by other authors reviewed in the Edinburgh Review. Volume CXVIII., July 1863. The writer sums up his criticism as follows Glancing at the work of Sir Charles Lyell as a whole, it leaves the impression on our minds that we have been reading an ingenious academical thesis, rather than a work of demonstration by an original writer There is no argument in it, and only a few facts which have not been stated elsewhere by Sir...

Letter 175a To Erasmus Darwin

Mag. 1864, page 255).) I have now come round again to Ramsay's view, (179 2. Phil. Mag. 1864, page 293.) for the third or fourth time but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements, I shall recant for the fifth time. (179 3. This refers to a discussion on the Connection of the predominance of Lakes with Glacial Action ( Elements, Edition VI., pages 168-74). Lyell adheres to the views expressed in the Antiquity of Man (1863) against Ramsay's theory of the origin of lake basins by ice action.) What a capital writer Tyndall is

Preparation of reports

The written court report should begin with an introduction, summarizing the sources and purposes of the report. The sources will normally include the psychiatric interview(s) and the documentation supplied to the writer, which should be listed. The report may then give a description of the individual's personal, medical, and psychiatric history. There may also need to be reference to relevant aspects of the additional information supplied to the assessing clinician. The report should include an account of the psychiatric interview and findings on clinical examination. The level of confidence with which an opinion can be given may vary. For example, a clinician may be able to give an opinion about diagnosis with a high level of confidence, but an opinion about an individual's potential risk to others may be less certain. In compiling a report the psychiatrist should make it explicit if a particular opinion is provisional, or carries a significant degree of uncertainty. The written...

Creation and Mental Darwinism

In defense of the genetic critique of the literary creation process, illustrated in manuscripts by Gustave Flaubert or Francis Ponge, Almuth Gresillon (1992) emphasizes that against the straight highway, the inexorable march toward resolution and outcome, the teleology of the straight line, we find opposite metaphors that indicate a more winding path forks, turnoffs, wrong turns, unbeaten paths, detours, crossroads, backtracks, dead ends, accidents, and false starts. According to Claude Simon, the writer progresses laboriously, gropes around blindly, gets bogged clown, and starts up again. Matisse compares the path of his pencil to the gesture of a man feeling his way forward in the dark. In many respects, the memory of Jacques-Louis Lions's (Franck, 1995) black painting, preserving what Laurent Schwartz, a French mathematician, refers to as the multiple sharp lines and zigzags, is more informative about the mechanisms of mathematical creation than is a report published in the...

Nervous System Infections

Gerhard Henrik ArmauerHansen (1841-1912) was a burly Norwegian physician who lived in the southern part of that country in the bustling seaport of Bergen. He was a man of many interests, ranging from music, religion, and polar exploration, to marine biology. A vigorous trade of goods and ideas with other countries was going on at the time, especially with Germany and England, and like many of the city's inhabitants Dr. Hansen was fluent in several languages. He was well aware of the scientific advances of the day, including Darwin's studies, and Pasteur's proof that bacteria could cause fermentation. His Norwegian contemporaries included such luminaries as his friend, Edvard Grieg, the famous composer, Henrik Ibsen, a world-renowned playwright, and Bjornstijerne Bjornson, a Nobel Prize-winning writer and poet, a leader in the movement for an independent Norway.

The Psychodynamic Perspective

Example of massive repression in action. Histrionics are more likely to turn the tables, projecting hypersexual interest onto their accuser and deflecting attention from themselves. With righteous indignation, they may maintain that they cannot express how hurt they are by such a suggestion, thereby leaving their prospective suitors feeling angry, confused, or even amazed. For Yvonne, this tendency is perhaps seen with her insistence that she is not like the other girls, as she insists forcefully that she is an artist, dancing presumably for the aesthetic value. Histrionics may also use sexualization to distract themselves from feelings of anxiety or emptiness or to compensate for their perception that women lack power in a male-dominated world. By evoking sexual desire in others, by creating demand but rarely satisfying it, histrionics level the interpersonal playing field. Whatever the reason, their pervasive use of sexuality has caused many analytic writers to remark that these...

Guy de Maupassant and Friedrich Nietzsche

Two late-19th-century writers provide parallel cases of syphilis, illustrating the progression of disease from infection to the final dementia of paresis. Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) each left their jobs when their health declined. Each spent a decade traveling in search of relief from the agonies of progressing syphilis, writing under adverse conditions of ill health. Each was institutionalized with a diagnosis of General Paralysis of the Insane after a sudden breakdown. The well-known syphilologist Joseph Earle Moore estimated that, in the days before penicillin, only about 5 of syphilitics progressed to the form of tertiary neurosyphilis known as paresis, General Paralysis of the Insane, or Dementia paralytica Moore, 1943 . And yet, how many people today think of syphilis when it was epidemic only as it affected its victims in their demented last years Two 19th century writers afflicted with paresis - Guy de Maupassant (1850- 1893) and...

The Real Fountain of Youth

Cynthia Kenyon says that her most important discovery is that aging is not completely unavoidable. Instead, we begin to think of aging as a disease that can be cured, or at least postponed, she and another Elixir cofounder, Leonard Guarente, wrote in an article quoted by Smithsonian writer Stephen Hall. Lifespan, Kenyon says, is determined by the result of competition between

Terminology Used in Describing Movement Disorders

Dystonia is an abnormal sustained muscle contraction, causing twisting or turning around one or multiple joints. It may be present in a variety of locations, including the neck (cervical dystonia torticollis), eyelids (blepharospasm) or vocal cords (spasmodic dysphonia). Dystonia can be focal, segmental or generalized. An example of focal limb dystonia is writer's cramp. In segmental dystonia, an entire limb or trunk is involved. Generalized dystonia is multi-focal, involving several body parts.

Phase 4the Grieving Process

An important part of assisting families in coping is recognizing the stages of grief. While people do go through stages, they are often not well defined. Some writers list as few as three and others, as many as ten. People tend to vacillate between stages and can be in different stages in one day or at the same time. Overall, it is important to remember that grief is expressed in a variety of ways anger, depression, irritability, confusion, guilt, anxiety, relief, numbness, preoccupation, ambivalence and fear. What we learn most often from people in grief is that it is a state of transition. What is felt today may not be felt tomorrow.

The Biological Perspective

The history of the schizoid personality begins in early descriptive psychiatry and continues through later temperament and constitutional theorists. Early writers emphasized different characteristics of the modern prototype. For example, Ribot (1890) invented the term anhedonia to describe the diminished ability to experience pleasure, characteristic of the schizoid pattern. Similarly, A. Hoch (1910) described what he called the shut-in personality, using adjectives such as reticent, seclusive, stubborn, and shy. Likewise, Kraepelin (1919, p. 213) spoke of an autistic personality existing in a healed and stable prepsychotic state, individuals who narrow or reduce their external interests and contacts and are notable for their preoccupation with inward ruminations.

Pathophysiology of dystonia M Hallett

Dystonia is the term for a set of disorders characterized by abnormal postures and unwanted muscle spasms that interfere with motor performance. There are many types of dystonias. Primary focal dystonias are the most common. These disorders tend to come on in adult life and include spasmodic torticollis or cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and focal hand dystonia, most commonly writer's cramp. Most of the physiological studies have used patients with focal dysto-nias, and while there may be similarities among dystonias of different types, there should be caution in overgeneralization. Writer's cramp is generally seen in persons who have spent much time writing. Repetitive activities in other tasks are precedents for other task specific disorders. A long period of stereotyped, repetitive behavior seems to be important. Clearly all persons who do considerable writing do not develop writer's cramp. Likely, analogously, many patients who have blepharospasm have a history of eye symptoms,...

Theory in postempiricist epistemology

Folk psychology, our familiar language of mental states and processes, admits of several interpretations. Within the framework of Cartesian metaphysics, the language refers to a private, immaterial realm, independent of the body. Part of this picture is that first-person knowledge of mind is direct and certain, while third-person knowledge is indirect and (probably irredeemably) uncertain. This whole problematic, inherited from seventeenth-century philosophy, was played out in the first decades of psychological science, with introspectionism followed by behaviourism. The philosophical work of dismantling the Cartesian interpretation of mind was accomplished for example by Wittgenstein (1953) and by Ryle (1949). These philosophers were able to show that mental concepts do not refer to some private process running parallel to behaviour, but are intimately (logically) linked to behaviour itself. It would be fair to say that in these writers the negative part of the argument, the...

The influence of psychodynamic theories

Research has shown that psychoanalysis, in the form originally promulgated by Freud and his followers, is no more effective in relieving neurotic symptoms than other less demanding and less expensive forms of psychotherapy. Freud's theory of dreams, which he himself considered to embody his deepest insight, has not stood the test of time. Nor have his views on religion, anthropology, and art. Although many of his psychopathological interpretations are open to question, he was a great clinical observer and a great writer whose descriptions of obsessional neurosis and melancholia remain unsurpassed. In spite of the comparative failure of psychoanalysis as either a system of psychopathology or a technique of treatment, psychoanalytic ideas have caused a revolution in the way Western man thinks about himself, and have also had a major effect upon twentieth-century art and literature. Psychoanalysis has entered the language we use, and it would be difficult to discard from our writing and...

Early Historical Forerunners

Subsequent writers suggested parallels between anatomical defects and defects of character, though in a way that would be considered amusing today. For example, some believed that a specific cerebral center controlled morality (Maudsley, 1874). Just as some individuals are colorblind, some were regarded as morally blind. Other writers held that antisocials were born delinquents possessing common physical features, such as a large, projecting lower jaw, outstretched ears, sloping forehead, left-handedness, robust physique, precocious sexual development, insensitivity to pain, and muscular agility (Lombroso, 1887). Stone (1993) suggests that society needs the comfort of believing that criminals somehow look different to reassure ourselves that we are protected from true psychopaths, who cloak themselves with the trite and ordinary.

The condensation and recording of information Summary and formulation

The skills required to produce summaries and formulations should be acquired early on in professional training, since they are central to the process of getting the information about the patient into a form which facilitates the making of decisions and the allocation of priorities for actions. Useful preliminaries to the writing of both summary and formulation are the preparation of a problem list and a lifechart how to prepare these should also be covered in the early stages of training. The summary for an individual patient should be more or less the same whoever prepares it, since it should be a simple record of what is known, arranged under conventional headings. A 'telegram' style of writing is acceptable for the sake of brevity. In contrast, a formulation should be written as a grammatically correct narrative, and there is no necessary expectation that two different clinicians using the same summary about a patient would arrive at exactly the same conclusions in their...

Public attitudes

To be set against such negative perceptions is the growing trend in published autobiographical accounts of serious mental illness which, in addition to being frank, factual, and detailed, are generally positive concerning the effectiveness of psychiatric intervention. A bibliography of such personal accounts, published in 1996, lists seven anthologies and 48 autobiographies of former patients published since 1980. (31) Some authors are noted writers, poets, and artists, capable of providing a vivid and sharp account of the inner world of mental illness. Several noted psychologists have also written of their own psychiatric ill-health, treatment, and recovery. Such accounts reveal that mental health care professionals themselves can behave in a discriminatory and stigmatizing fashion vis- -vis colleagues with a history of psychiatric ill-health. (32.,33

Melvin Yahr 19172004

Response to penicillin (Fletcher, 1984) or the present writer's joy as an intern at the effectiveness of oral diuretics replacing parenteral mercurials. a barrier to participation''. He then applied these principles to neurological practice and training. He perceptively commented on urban rural practice (''the irresistible ambience of West Coast living'' - very pertinent for a former Winnipeg physician when read during a January sabbatical in Vancouver) the needed continuum of care required ''through the various phases of the many long-term diseases with which we are involved'' and he made an impassioned plea for ''one class of care - first class''. Other topics included telehealth (not his term) consultations, relevant CME in neurological matters for primary care physicians, and the relationship between the academic health centre and its medical hinterland. To this writer, this address was unexpectedly refreshing, revealing, and still relevant.

Meet the Jackoons

Rachel is seventeen and is, in many ways, the opposite to Luke. She loves to have people around her, likes nothing better than to chat about trivia with her friends and her appearance is extremely important to her. She has a passion for the most up-to-date designer clothes and is stunningly beautiful. In fact she manages to come downstairs every morning looking as if she has just stepped out of a magazine. Needless to say, endless streams of admirers are also added extras in the Jackson household Though multi-talented and an excellent singer and writer, Rachel's greatest strength is in art. She has astounding talent and it seems to be a foregone conclusion that she will carry on to art college after her A levels and pursue a career using her artistic flair.

Structure of reports

All reports should have three main sections. First, the report should begin with the patient's personal details and the reasons for which the report has been requested, together with the identity of the commissioning agency. It should also specify the relationship between the writer and the patient. If the patient is or was in the clinical care of the writer the duration of the care should be noted, and the date of the last occasion the patient was seen should be given. If a special interview had to be arranged with a patient not previously known, the duration and date of the interview should be stated. The sources of information other than the patient used to prepare the report should then be detailed, plus any other documents that have been read. Reports for civil, judicial, and child protection proceedings will also require The last section should contain the opinion of the psychiatrist about the specific questions posed by the commissioning agent. These questions may be...

Basilisk

Physical description Length, 12 inches. Ancient writers described a snakelike animal, with a bright white spot on the head. By the late Middle Ages, the animal had come to be called a Cockatrice and was described as a bird with a spotted rooster's comb and a snake's tail.

The Killers Inside

Famed British writer Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is one of the most popular mysteries of all time. The book's main character, physician Henry Jekyll, is respected by all who know him yet when Jekyll drinks a potion brewed in his laboratory, he is transformed into a brutal killer. In 1976, 90 years after Stevenson's book was published, two scientists in California discovered that transformations much like the one that turned Jekyll into the evil Mr. Hyde lie behind cancer, one of humankind's most feared diseases.

Delirium

The concept of delirium has been with us for over 2000 years. Greek physicians, such as Hippocrates, described its essential features1 and the Roman writer Celsus distinguished it from mania and depression.2 Galen differentiated between primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) forms.3

The Middle Ages

Medical writers distinguish two kinds of Madness, and describe them both as a constant disorder of the mind without any considerable fever but with this difference, that the one is attended with audaciousness and fury, the other with sadness and fear and that they call mania, this melancholy. But these generally differ in degree only. For melancholy very frequently changes, sooner or later, into maniacal madness and, when the fury is abated, the sadness generally returns heavier than before.

Hominids

Family tree became possible, it was the established practice to classify humanlike primates (Hominidae) separately from apelike primates (Pongidae). Two classic works of cryptozoology dealing with sightings of hairy, primitive-looking creatures were written in this transitional period by Bernard Heuvelmans (On the Track of Unknown Animals, 1958) and Ivan T. Sanderson (Abominable Snowmen Legend Come to Life, 1961). Traditionally, human beings (genus Homo) and their ancestors all the way back to Australopithecus were placed in the Hominidae, and the great apes (except the gibbons) were classed in the Pongidae. Some of the writers who have consulted these works have not updated the terminology and the concepts that underlie the new taxonomy, which may be confusing.

Always an Optimist

Throughout gene therapy's roller-coaster ride between enthusiasm and disgrace, French Anderson has kept his belief that gene treatments will prove to be the best way to cure or prevent many illnesses. It is his mission. He will not quit. He never entertains the possibility of failure, Anderson's wife, Kathy, told writers Bob Burke and Barry Epperson when they were preparing their biography of Anderson, W. French Anderson Father of Gene Therapy.

Free Will

Okay, but the science-fiction author never said the android didn't have preferences. She said that it didn't have emotions. It's interesting that to convey this fact the writer has the android behave as a human would if the human were heavily sedated or in shock. As long as the android doesn't have emotions, why not have it chuckle occasionally just to brighten the days of the people around it

Botulinum Toxin

Botulinum toxin is used clinically in the treatment of blepharospasm, writer's cramp, spasticities of various origins, and rigidity due to extrapyramidal disorders. It is also used to treat gustatory sweating and cosmetically to decrease facial wrinkles. Botulinum toxin A (Botox, Oculinum) injected intramuscularly produces functional denervation that lasts about 3 months. Clinical benefit is seen within 1 to 3 days. Adverse effects range from diplopia and irritation with blepharospasm to muscle weakness with dystonias.

Visit to Venezuela

Practically the first person Wexler saw in Laguneta was a skeleton-thin woman hunched in the doorway of one of the stilt houses. When an expedition member spoke to the woman, she spread her arms and began a writhing motion that Wexler recognized all too well. Wexler told Mary Murray, a writer for the New York Times Magazine, in 1994,

New Career Path

Cynthia Kenyon never planned to be either an explorer or a biologist. Born in Chicago on February 18, 1954, she thought first of being a musician (she loved the French horn) or, later, when she entered the University of Georgia at Athens, a writer. Both of Kenyon's parents had academic backgrounds her father was a professor of geography at the university, and her mother was an administrator in its physics department but Kenyon's own university experiences were not happy at first. Unsure what to do with her life, she dropped out before earning a degree.

Evolution

Evolution is a process of Variation and Heredity. The older writers, though they had some vague idea that it must be so, did not study Variation and Heredity. Darwin did, and so begot not a theory, but a science. In Paul Brooks The House of Life Rachel Carson at Work The Writer and His Subject (p. 9)

Globus hystericus

Historically, globus was almost always found in women and was called 'suffocation of the mother'. The symptom was also linked with the idea that the uterus could wander and block the channels of respiration. It is not clear whether the early writers were describing an anxious dyspnoea or an anxious difficulty in swallowing.

Hello Dolly

When a lamb is born, usually only its mother and perhaps the farmer who owns it knows or cares. The birth of a lamb named Dolly, however, was featured on the front page of the New York Times on February 23, 1997. In the months that followed, speakers and writers poured out millions of impassioned words about this ordinary-looking sheep. Some people even said that Dolly's birth could change the meaning of being human.

Rumors of Cloning

Implanting altered stem cells in embryos was not the only possible way of creating multiple copies of genetically engineered animals. It soon occurred to me, Wilmut wrote in The Second Creation, a book about the development of Dolly that he coauthored with fellow Roslin researcher Keith Campbell and science writer Colin Tudge, that it would be better if we could first allow the zygote fertilized egg to multiply, to produce several or many cells, then add new DNA to several or many of those cells, and then produce new embryos from each of the transformed cells. Such multiplication is cloning. With cloning, each successful gene transfer could produce many embryos instead of just one.

Note Of Caution

Other writers have also questioned whether, in contemporary Western culture, the point has been reached where it is not possible for an individual to become unwell without being at fault (Marantz, 1990). Marantz highlights the dangers of characterising episodes of illness as preventable, because this implies that the individual with that health problem becomes responsible for any recurrence. He argues that responsibility is attributed in this deterministic way because we all like to be able to explain why something has happened. However, calculating risk is meaningful only with respect to whole populations, and not to individuals, and were a risk factor to be correctly identified, it would not be an absolute cause of disorder. Marantz goes on to state that there is no known lifestyle (or self-management programme) which can ensure absence of health problems. For these reasons, he concludes that we should encourage people to modify known risk factors while, at the same time, allowing...

Center of a Storm

Like Ian Wilmut and James Thomson before him, Ingo Potrykus found himself the center of a media storm. Greenpeace and others sometimes attacked him personally, claiming that he was nothing more than a dupe, knowing or unknowing, of the biotechnology industry. Potrykus, in turn, wrote in an article defending golden rice in the March 2001 issue of Plant Physiology that in my view, the Greenpeace management has but one real interest to organize media-effective actions for fund raising. Because groups like Greenpeace were trying to deny a potentially valuable technology to the people who needed it most, he said, they should be held responsible for the foreseeable unnecessary death and blindness of millions of poor every year. At the same time, Potrykus told Danish writer Gitte Meyer, I don't want to become a part of PR campaigns for the biotech companies. He criticized biotechnology supporters for implying that golden rice was ready for widespread distribution, which he knew was not true.

Afterword

And an expert in the canal-wall-down technique. If one is to prepare for a tympanoplasty, there is not anyone better to read than Edwin Monsell, professor at Wayne State University and a renowned authority in otologic surgery. If your approach requires a lateral graft technique, then one must assume that a writer from the House Ear Clinic would be the author, and indeed that is the case. Rick Friedman presents an excellent review of the technique that should be easily appreciated by the otolaryngologic practitioner. The intact bridge mastoidectomy, presented by Hamed Sajjadi, provides an alternative approach to mastoid and chronic ear disease that has broad applicability. The textbook covers most of the otologic operations that a general otolaryngologist would perform, and even goes beyond that, as in the case of posterior semicircular canal occlusion or implantable hearing aids, procedures that may not be readily performed by many otolaryngologists, but could be if the surgeon...

Springheel Jack

(2) Newspaper writers theorized that the attacks were made by a ghost, a bear, or a devil because a letter had been received claiming that a rich man had wagered he could visit London suburbs disguised as one of these creatures. (5) A fictional story in which Springheel Jack is a nobleman who is cheated out of his inheritance and becomes a highwayman to steal from the unscrupulous rich first appeared in 1875 as a forty-eight-part serial by penny-dreadful writer Charlton Lea. This literary Springheel Jack was demonic was dressed in a crimson suit and had batlike wings, horns, talons, cloven hooves, and sulphurous breath. His leaps were accomplished by the use of steel rods and springs. Much of the legend seems to derive from this narrative, which was picked up by other sensational writers.

Werewolf

The first writer to identify lycanthropy as a disease was Marcellus Sidetes, the Greek author of a medical poem who lived in Manavgat, Turkey, in the second century A.D. He considered it a form of melancholia in which the sufferer is deluded into thinking he is a wolf and lingers in cemeteries.

Yunwi Tsunsdi

Sources James Mooney, Myths of the Cherokee, Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 19 (1900) 252-254, 325, 330-337, 348 John Witthoft and Wendel Hadlock, Cherokee-Iroquois Little People, Journal of American Folklore 59 (1946) 413-422 Federal Writers Program, Georgia (Atlanta, Ga. Tupper and Love, 1954), pp. 384-385 Raymond D. Fogelson, Cherokee Little People Reconsidered, Journal of Cherokee Studies 7, no. 2 (1982) 92-98 Ron Martz, Cherokee 'Little People' Legends of North Carolina, Atlanta (Ga.) Weekly, October 11, 1987 Jeannie Reed, Stories of the Yunwi Tsunsdi The Cherokee Little People (Cherokee, N.C. Cherokee Communications, 1991) John E. Roth, American Elves (Jefferson, N.C. McFarland, 1997), pp. 29-33.

Kaufmann

Hospital and Montefiore Hospital in New York City. As a student he played the clarinet in a jazz combo to earn extra money, but insisted that he was not a talented musician. Later, when questioned about the origin of the phenomenal musical talent of his daughters, he attributed all to his wife Felice, whom he married when she was a 23-year-old writer working at Fortune Magazine. Yahr served in the US army from 1944 to 1947 and was discharged with the rank of Major. Back in NY, he joined the faculty at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons where he began his work as an academic neurologist. He had wide clinical interests

Robert M Herndon MD

Murray include that of the famous German poet Heinrich Heine, the Scottish lighthouse keeper Alan Stephenson, and the Victorian writer Margaret Gatty. The absence of good descriptions of earlier cases cannot be taken as evidence that the disease was not present earlier. Rather, it likely has to do with the primitive state of medicine and the paucity of good descriptions. In reality, a disease does not exist as such until it is described and named.

Truffles

The black diamond An immense amount of ink has been spilled in singing its praises. No food writer fails to mention its appearance on a menu, and no chef neglects to feature it when he aims for stars. For centuries the merits of the various black truffles that grow in Western Europe have been debated. The black truffle of P rigord is recognized have a quite different taste from the one found in Burgundy, and naturally the truffles found in France are claimed by the French to be far superior to those of Spain and Italy. Can science provide an objective basis for these opinions

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