How To Bolster Your Immune System

Immune System Boosters

Get Instant Access

Manifestations of Scurvy


Fatigue, listlessness; decreased exercise tolerance; depression, uncooperative


Gingivitis, halitosis, easy bleeding of gums


Conjunctival varicosities, retinal hemorrhages, retrobulbar hemorrhages, optic atrophy, dryness, photophobia


Anorexia, submucosal hemorrhage


Dry, rough skin; pale skin; follicular hyperkeratosis; hemorrhagic lesions; capillary fragility, petechiae; edema, especially legs; subungual hemorrhages; alopecia; poor wound healing or breakdown of old wounds; acne


Polymyalgia, polyarthralgias, hemarthroses, back pain, osteoporosis


Dyspnea, congestive heart failure, syncope, chest pain, sudden death


Anemia, leukopenia

Source: Levine, M., Katz, A., and Padayatty, S. Chapter 31, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Shils, Shike, Ross, Caballero, and Cousins, Eds., Lippincott Williams & Wilkens, Philadelphia, 2006, p. 520. Reprinted by permission.

many years were forced open again . . ."38 As discussed in detail below and in Chapter 1, deficiency of ascorbic acid has profound effects on wound healing, primarily through its effect on collagen synthesis. However, independent effects on the immune system — presumably through its effects on the function of phagocytes, T-lymphocyte proliferation, production of interferon, its antioxidant activity, and gene expression of monocyte adhesion molecules — also play a role.14911 Due to the crucial importance of the immune response in the inflammatory phase of wound healing, it is not surprising that deficiency of ascorbate would have devastating effects on wound healing. The multitude of findings of vitamin C deficiency are described in Table 8.1. The diversity of findings with ascorbate deficiency indicates the diverse functions of this vitamin for many chemical processes and organs of the body.

biochemical functions of ascorbic acid

Vitamin c as an Enzymatic Cofactor

One of the major functions of ascorbic acid, like most vitamins, is as a cofactor in enzymatic reaction, where it serves as an electron donor. As will be seen below, this ability to function as a reducing agent also allows it to have a powerful effect on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in a nonenzymatic fashion. At least eight different mammalian enzyme systems use ascorbic acid as a cofactor (Table 8.2).11213 While it is the function as a cofactor in collagen metabolism that is most relevant to scurvy and the process of wound healing, it is likely that the effects on carnitine biosynthesis and

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment