Table

Suggested B Vitamin Intakes for Uncomplicated Critically Ill Patients as Compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Healthy Men and Women

Vitamin

Critically Ill

RDA (men)

RDA (women)

Vitamin B1

10 mg/day

1.5 mg/day

1.1 mg/day

Vitamin B2

10 mg/day

1.7 mg/day

1.3 mg/day

Niacin

200 mg/day

19.0 mg/day

15.0 mg/day

Vitamin B6

20 mg/day

2.0 mg/day

1.6 mg/day

Pantothenic acid

100 mg/day

5.0-7.0 mg/day

same as men

Vitamin Bj2

20 |gm/day

2.0 | gm/day

2.0 | gm/day

Biotin

5 mg/day

30.0-100.0 |gm/day

same as men

Folic acid

2 mg/day

200 | gm/day

180 |gm/day

thiamine monophosphate [TMP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]). There are three enzymes that are known to participate in the formation of these phosphate esters:

1. Thiamine pyrophosphokinase catalyzes the formation of TPP from thiamine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

2. TPP-ATP phosphoryl transferase catalyzes the formation of TTP from TPP and ATP.

3. Thiamine pyrophosphatase hydrolyzes TPP to form TMP.

The percentages of the three active forms of thiamine found in the body are 80% TPP, 10% TTP, and 10% TMP and thiamine. Higher concentrations are found in the skeletal muscle (50%), heart, liver, kidneys, and brain.3

The absorption of thiamine takes place in the upper part of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum). Oral thiamine is well absorbed and rapidly converted to its phosphorylated forms. It was shown that when the upper section of the small intestine is removed due to ulcers or injury, thiamine absorption is significantly affected by alkaline pH found in the lower intestinal tract. After absorption, thiamine is carried by the hepatic portal system to the liver. In normal adults, 20 to 30% of thiamine in the plasma is protein bound in the form of TPP. The biological

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