O

FIGURE 7.4 Biotin.

The Institute of Medicine did not establish a tolerable upper level of intake for biotin, because it is not known to be toxic.8 One case report of a negative reaction (development of eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion) was noted for an elderly woman who consumed large quantities of biotin (10 mg/d) and pantothenic acid (300 mg/d) for 2 months.26

Recommendations for daily intake have not been established, but the estimated safe and adequate intake for Americans has been determined to be between 30 to 100 |g/d and for Canadians 1.5 |g/kg body weight/d.8 Good food sources of biotin include cooked eggs, cooked liver, whole grain products, and fish. Certain drugs interact with biotin and would alter the amounts needed in the diet. Specific families of drugs include some anticonvulsants, which impact on both absorption and excretion, and antibiotics that destroy bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that normally produce biotin.

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