Trauma, burns, and sepsis are characterized by severe metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. In burns, the extent of the injury, cardiopulmonary status, and age of the patient are key factors in determining the probability of survival  (Figure 11.1). Improvements in the resuscitation of the burn and trauma victims have allowed patients to survive into a postinjury hypermetabolic phase during which subsequent wound care and other operative interventions are required [2,3]. For such post-resuscitative survivors, the principal causes of subsequent morbidity and mortality are sepsis and uncontrolled inflammation. Profound alterations in immunometabolic regulation in traumatized individuals are becoming better understood [2,4]. Nutrition is one component of the care of a critically ill patient that influences wound healing and survival.
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