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Testosterone Anabolic steroids

Note: HGH: human growth hormone; IGF-1: Insulin-like growth factor.

In summary, hormones in protein synthesis and new tissue growth are necessary for wound healing. In subsequent sections, individual anabolic hormones will be discussed, including human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, insulin, testosterone, and testosterone analogs, also known as anabolic steroids.

human growth hormone (hgh)


Human growth hormone (HGH) is a potent endogenous anabolic hormone produced by the pituitary gland in daily doses of 0.5 to 0.8 mg in children and young adults. Growth hormone is a large polypeptide, 191 amino acids long, that contains two receptor binding sites. There are a number of growth factor binding proteins (GHBP), and growth factor binding sites are found on a large variety of tissues, especially liver. Production decreases rapidly with increasing age. HGH levels are at their highest during the growth spurt. Starvation and intense exercise are two other potent stimuli, while acute or chronic injury or illness suppress HGH release, especially in the elderly.45-48 The amino acids glutamine and arginine, when given in large doses, were also shown to increase HGH release.

HGH has a number of metabolic effects.45-51 The most prominent is its anabolic effect. HGH increases the influx and decreases the efflux of amino acids into the cell. Cell proliferation is accentuated, as is overall protein synthesis and new tissue growth. HGH also stimulates insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) production by the liver, and some of the anabolism seen with HGH is that produced by IGF-1, another anabolic agent. Other effects, listed in Table 14.5 and Table 14.6, include its effects on glucose and fat metabolism.

The effect on increasing fat metabolism is beneficial in that fat is preferentially used for energy production, and amino acids are preserved for use in protein synthesis (protein partitioning). Recent data indicate that insulin provides some of the anabolic effect of HGH therapy. At present, the issue as to the specific anabolic effects attributed to HGH versus that of IGF-1 and insulin remains unresolved.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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