Regulates the cutaneous immune system; downregulates epithelial proliferation and promotes differentiation

Elderly and house-bound people

[52,81,88,89,149-152]; patients with burns; critically ill [89]; some breast-fed infants; long-term TPN [153,154]; anticonvulsant [155]; corticosteroid [156-158]; oxandrolone [50] or thyroxine [50] use protein deficiency [159]; liver disease [82,83,150]; renal disease [160,161]; malabsorptive disorders, such as tropical sprue; and regional enteritis [162-164]; systemic lupus erythematosis [158]

Exogenous and endogenous sources of vitamin D exist; vitamin D3 is produced in the skin; vitamin D2 is found in food sources, such as saltwater fish (e.g., herring, mackerel, salmon, and sardines), liver and fat from seals and polar bears, eggs from hens that were fed vitamin D, fortified milk products, and other enriched food such as cereal



Males: 9-13 yr, 5* |i.g/d; 14-18 yr, 5* |ig/d; 19-30 yr, 5* |ig/d; 31-50 yr, 5* |ig/d; 50-70 yr, 10* Jlg/d; >70 yr, 15* |i.g/d Females: 9-13 yr, 5* Hg/d; 14-18 yr, 5* |ig/d; 19-30 yr, 5* |ig/d; 31-50 yr, 5* |ig/d; 50-70 yr, 10* Jlg/d; >70 yr, 15* |i.g/d Pregnancy:

< 18 yr, 5* |i.g/d; 19-30 yr, 5* ng/d; 31-50 yr, 5* |ig/d


< 18 yr, 5* |i.g/d; 19-30 yr, 5* |ig/d; 31-50 yr, 5* |ig/d

Correct deficiency; vitamin D supplementation is recommended in patients with burns [50,51]

Sj d

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