World War Ii Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Developments between the two World Wars

In the United States, Trigant Burrow, the pioneer amongst psychoanalysts to turn attention to group dynamics, developed group psychoanalysis in the 1920s. He worked intensively with small groups, studied group tensions in communal living, and opened up a new psychological vision. For this he was rejected by both Freud and the American psychoanalytic establishment. He learned that group conflicts and tensions do not result from the actions of individuals but originate in and affect the whole group 24 This began the paradigm shift that led to a vision of the group as a whole.(25) It was to undergo further development after the Second World War, enabling later workers to recognize the dynamics of groups and institutions and leading to the therapeutic community concept and practice. (26

Eula Bingham PhD John Zapp PhD deceased

The use of poisons as adjuncts to other weapons such as the spear or arrow ceased in Western Europe long before the discovery of firearms. It has persisted to this day in primitive civilizations such as those of the African pygmies and certain tribes of South American Indians. The use of poison on a large scale as a primary weapon of war occurred during World War I, when both sides employed poison gases. In the interval between World War I and World War II, the potential of chemical and biological agents as a means of coercion was thoroughly studied by most of the powers, and both sides were prepared to use them, if necessary, in World War II. Although their use in future wars has apparently been renounced, it should not be forgotten that the chemical and biological toxins remain viable means of coercion that could be utilized under appropriate circumstances in future conflicts. It would not be prudent to forget this in thinking about national defense.

Principles of Therapy with Unsealed Sources

Since the discovery of radium by Madame Curie in the early twentieth century, it has been the dream of medical practitioners to use radioactive emissions for treatment of human disease. Indeed, Madame Curie and her coworkers found that certain superficial skin diseases underwent dramatic responses after exposure to radiation and the fields of radiobiology and radiation oncology were born (1). In the 30 years post-World War II, many new radioisotopes were discovered and purified for medical use. In fact, medical radioisotope therapy use and research has paralleled the development of all other uses of atomic energy. Colloidal gold and phosphorous (P-32) were some of the earliest radioisotopes used in therapy (2). The discovery of a myriad of new radioisotopes for medical use followed rapidly, along with new radiochemistry procedures for labeling drugs and biologic agents. The history of therapy with unsealed sources can trace its roots to the beginnings of the atomic age, the birth of...

What Else May Be Important In Causing Multiple Sclerosis

The notion of an infectious cause of MS gained support when the disease emerged in the Faroe Islands, off the coast of England, after occupation by British troops during World War II. It has been speculated that dogs kept as pets by the British brought canine distemper or another virus to the island, exposing the native human inhabitants. However, no links to the canine distemper virus have been demonstrated.

History of DNA as the Genetic Material

Until the time of World War II, the chemical nature of the inherited genetic information remained very vague and elusive. DNA was actually discovered in 1869 by Frederich Miescher, who extracted it from the pus from infected wounds However, it was nearly a century before its true significance was revealed by Oswald Avery. In 1944, Avery found that the virulent nature of some strains of bacteria that caused pneumonia could be transmitted to related harmless strains by a chemical extract. Avery purified the essential molecule and demonstrated that it was DNA, although he did not use the name DNA, since its structure was then uncharacterized. When DNA from virulent strains was added to harmless strains, some took up the DNA and were transformed into virulent strains (see Ch. 18 for the mechanism of transformation). Avery concluded that the genes were made of DNA and that somehow genetic information was encoded in this molecule. Since DNA was known to have only half a dozen components, it...

Secular changes in incidence

This refers to the rise and fall of diseases in populations, with the possibility of making projections into the future. For example, there is some evidence that schizophrenia has been dropping in incidence and becoming more benign in its clinical course, (8) it is possible that depressive disorder has become more frequent in persons born since the Second World War(9l0) (the suicide rate of young persons has indisputably increased in many industrialized countries), it is likely that eating disorders have increased in frequency in some industrialized countries, and it is certain that the use of heroin and the AIDS epidemic with its neuropsychiatric sequelae are new arrivals and will be a continuing burden.

Epidemiology Of Chd In African American And White Populations

Regarding the rapid changes in the incidence of CHD in African Americans described above, it is imperative to stress that the rise in CHD even in white populations is also of relatively recent origin. This fact is insufficiently appreciated. As evidence from the U.K., the 1912 edition of Sir William Osler's Principles and Practice of Medicine described angina pectoris as a rare disease a case a year is about average, even in the large metropolitan hospitals. Prior to World War I, the

Hitlers promotion of psychoanalysis

The Second World War also promoted the spread of pychodynamic ideas, for an entirely different reason. A very high proportion of European psychoanalysts were, like their founder, Jews. Hitler's persecution led to their emigration. Some came to England, but the majority found refuge in the United States and profoundly influenced the development of psychiatry in that country. It has been argued that psychoanalysis was likely to make an especially strong impact upon a society based upon immigrants who were cut off from the network of stable social relationships, family ties, and religion which characterized older cultures. Whereas members of traditional societies make sense out of their experience in terms of these relationships, immigrant cultures have fewer reference points, and people therefore look for ways of understanding themselves which are based upon the psychological development of the isolated individual.

The process of individuation

After his break with Freud, Jung passed through a psychotic episode, which lasted throughout the First World War. He was nearly overwhelmed but his illness taught him that, at the same time at which his mind appeared to be disintegrating, a healing process was proceeding which was striving to make sense out of chaos and achieve a new integration. He himself wrote 'The years when I was pursuing my inner images were the most important in my life in them everything essential was decided.'(5) He found that he had to submit to being guided by something within himself which was independent of his conscious intention. Could this be the psychological equivalent of God a kind of 'God within' rather than a 'God out there' Jung wrote

From drive theory to object relations

Psychoanalysis started its life as a drive theory. By what means, Freud asked, did the instinctual life of the infant become tamed in the process of development so that the end result was the civilized man and woman of adult society To this he had two sets of answers. The first, roughly, was repression and sublimation. In the Oedipal situation the child experiences sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent. These feelings arouse anxiety ('castration anxiety'), and so are repressed, or diverted into harmless exploratory and creative sublimatory activities. If, however, the process of repression is excessive the consequence in adult life is emotional inhibition. When repression is insufficient, anxiety-based or psychosomatic disorders result, or, ultimately, psychosis. A second answer, coming later, and forged in the face of the horrors of the First World War, was to suggest that 'civilization' was only skin deep. Here Freud invoked the death instinct and regression. Eros, the love...

Zoonotic endoparasites

Phthirus pubis has been endemic in Iceland for centuries, but its incidence has probably always remained low. First confirmed reports on its occurrence are from post-medieval archaeological excavations from Reykholt (Buckland et al. 1992). By the middle of the eighteenth century Olafsson (1981) reported a species with the name Pediculus ferus and mentioned that infestations were sometimes observed on foreigners. Petursson (1834) discussed methods to get rid of P. pubis, which he obviously regarded as a problem in Iceland in the late eighteenth century. Health Reports from the former half of the twentieth century occasionally report phthiriasis but Overgaard (1942) and Gigja (1944) state that P. pubis hardly occurs outside harbor areas in Iceland. According to Health Reports the number of phthiriasis cases increased during the Second World War. At present, dermatologists regularly confirm the presence of P. pubis (Jon Hjaltalin Olafsson, personal communication).

General Comments

Elemental beryllium and its salts are highly toxic, and immunotoxicity represents the greatest risk factor in industrial exposure. In beryllium-using industries (metal extraction, refining and machining, electronics, nuclear weapons manufacture, aerospace, and high-tech ceramics), inhalation of dust containing the metal triggers an immune reaction, potentially resulting in a condition termed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), with a prevalence of 2-5 in beryllium-exposed individuals (1,2).

Management and Development for Tourism

It was not until after World War II that tourism to national parks and similar reserves developed rapidly, for example increasing in the Hwange National Park from 2771 visitors in 1949 to 25,351 in 1965 (Davison, 1967). This necessitated the building and maintenance of rest camps and tourist roads, which became a major consideration for most park management agencies, as they began to rival law enforcement in the proportion of the annual budget that it was necessary to spend on them.

A spectrum of disorders needing a range of services

The provision of services for alcohol use disorders historically has been driven by the prevailing view of their nature and prevalence. Following the Second World War, the disease concept of alcoholism gained increasing support in both the United States and the United Kingdom. (1 ) According to this concept, alcoholism is an all-or-nothing phenomenon affecting a relatively small subgroup of the population, and requires intensive specialist treatment. In the United Kingdom this led to the development of specialist alcohol treatment centres with an emphasis on intensive inpatient treatment over several weeks or months, and involving group therapy, often with close affiliation to the Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) fellowship. Such programmes tended to be targeted at relatively socially stable, articulate, and affluent males, and universally only catering for the more severely alcohol dependent. (2)

Private Sector Participation in Tourism to Parks

Growth and transformation of the relationship between public and private sector tourism to parks in countries like Zimbabwe has been interesting, but space does not permit it to be adequately explored here. Instead we limit ourselves to a broad brush description and evaluation of the changes that have taken place. Government-sponsored park tourism was first developed to cater for the domestic market, but soon began to attract foreign visitors, including those from overseas, especially as air travel grew after World War II. After Rhodesia unilaterally declared its independence from Britain and the United Nations applied mandatory economic sanctions to the country, the government paid special attention to developing tourism. This was motivated by the desire to earn essential foreign exchange and provided the country with favourable exposure in an influential market place. The tourism being managed by a government agency in parks and reserves, which had already earned an enviable...

Clinical Development

A genetic basis for drug response is not a new concept. As early as 1902, Archibald Garrod hypothesized that genetic variance in a biochemical pathway for the detoxification of a foreign substance was the cause of alcap-tonuria (Garrod, 1902). During World War II, it was noted that hemolysis related to antimalarial treatment was much more common among African American soldiers, leading to the identification of inherited variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was during this time that scientists discovered that the prolonged muscle relaxation and apnea after suxamethonium in some patients was due to an inherited deficiency of a plasma cholinesterase. Peripheral neuropathy was observed in a significant number of patients treated with the antituberculosis drug isoniazid, leading to the identification of genetic differences in acetylation pathways.

Keim P. Microbial Forensics A Scientific Assessment. A Report From American Academy Of Microbiology. Washington Dc 2002

Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pavlin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare A historical perspective. JAMA 1997 278 412-417. 4. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SPIRI). The Rise of CB Weapons The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York, NY Humanities Press 1971. 16. Robertson AG, Robertson LJ. From asps to allegations Biological warfare in history. Mil Med 1995 160 369-373. 18. Wilson TM, Logan-Henfrey L, Weller R, Kellman B. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture. In Brown C, Bolin C (eds). Emerging Diseases of Animals. Washington, DC ASM Press 2000 23-57. 22. Whitby S, Rogers P. Anticrop biological warfare Implications of the Iraqi and US programmes. Defense Analysis 1997 13 303-318. 23. Rogers P, Whitby S, Dando M. Biological warfare against crops. Sci Amer 1999 280(6) 70-75. 36. Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare JAMA 1997 285 431-432.

Emigration to the United States and Life in New York City

I emphasize that Mayr's move from Berlin to New York in 1931 had the simple reason that his position there was better, scientifically, than any he could expect in Germany (pers. comm.). Moreover, Mayr was the youngest of four assistants at the Museum in Berlin and knew that he would have to wait many years before a curatorship might open up for him. The Nazi regime which came to power in Germany in 1933 (i.e., 2 years after Mayr had arrived in New York) had nothing to do with his emigration to the United States, although Mayr was outspoken in his denouncement of this regime (see also p. 300, footnote). In addition, there was no room for a second major ornithologist in Berlin and probably not in all of Germany, next to Professor Stresemann. Their careers might have collided, as Mayr thought in retrospect (pers. comm. Bock 1994a). Moreover, Mayr would have had little chance of surviving World War II had he stayed in Germany.

Strobilurin fungicides research lines and critical research events4

Synthetic fungicides have been widely used for the protection of agricultural crops since World War II. Early synthetic fungicides were contact fungicides their effectiveness depends on the equal and complete distribution of the compound on the leaves and stems of crop plants. The agricultural use of synthetic fungicides was greatly enhanced when in the late 1960s systemic fungicides were commercialised. As opposed to contact fungicides, systemic fungicides are absorbed by the crop and distributed by active transport to all parts of the plant, thus providing a much more equal protection of the plant, including non-treated parts and new shoots and leaves. The discovery of various groups of systemic fungicides marked the beginning of a new period of anti-fungal crop protection. However, the extensive agricultural use of systemic fungicides led to an increasing number of reports on reduced functionality of the active ingredients because fungal diseases developed resistance to commonly...

Cordering Cougar Sighting In Wa In 2016

A large, black, leopardlike animal was reported around Emmaville in the New England area of New South Wales, from 1956 to 1962, with comebacks in 1969, 1973, and 1995. Some incidents were also reported in the region before World War II. Known as the Emmaville panther, it was held responsible for many nocturnal sheep killings. During 1956 and 1957, some 340 sheep were killed on a single ranch owned by Clive Berry. The case was declared solved on at least two occasions after the killing of a large black boar and an old hairless dingo, but the depredations continued. (2) Imported black Leopards (Panthera par-dus) that escaped from zoos or were brought as U.S. regimental mascots during World War II. Leopards are about 3 feet 6 inches-4 feet long, with a 2 feet 6 inch tail. They stand about 2 feet at the shoulder. Melanism in leopards is common in India and Southeast Asia. However, Australian big cat witnesses have never reported spots, which are visible in black specimens in bright...

Colleagues at the American Museum

Several younger colleagues joined the Bird Department and Mayr very much enjoyed mentoring them (Fig. 3.10). Dean Amadon (1912-2003) was engaged in 1937 for the egg collection and later became assistant curator. He did his PhD thesis on the Hawaiian honeycreepers. Eventually Amadon became Chairman of the Department (1957-1973) and was appointed the first Lamont Curator of Birds. E. Thomas Gilliard (1912-1965) had been hired as Chapman's assistant in 1932, when he dealt mostly with South American birds. Later he became Associate Curator of Birds and Mayr inspired him to focus his research on New Guinea birds, particularly the birds of paradise and bower birds. Hugh Birckhead (who was killed in France during the last stages of World War II) and Dillon Ripley (later Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution) were both influenced by Mayr in their research as well as was Charles Vaurie (1906-1975) who, as a teenager, had come to Jean Delacour (1890-1985) came to New York after the defeat of...

Evaluation Of Clinical Findings

An excellent review of the diagnosis and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents was recently published the reader is referred to that publication for additional information56. The present discussion will focus on specific aspects of clinical disease that point to intentional misuse.

Evaluation Of The Etiologic Agent

Biological warfare during the 1995 tularemia epidemic, strain typing revealed the etiologic agent to be type B Francisella tularensis var palaeartica, which is endemic in Bosnia.65 Pathogen banks at various diagnostic reference centers and collaborating centers associated with the OIE and WHO maintain strain typing and molecular characterization information.

Evaluation Of Scientific Literature

Terrorist or biological warfare attacks often do not take place in isolation. Successful attacks usually follow successful research and field trials. Any technology has a parenthood and genealogy attached to it. 61 Similar research may be conducted in different facilities by students or teachers of the perpetrators. There are exceptions, however, such as the New Zealand farmers who infected pet rabbits with rabbit calicivirus (which had been smuggled into the country

Equipment Or Potential Means Of Delivery

Production facilities scaled to produce the quantity and quality of etiologic agent typical of military biological warfare commonly operate at the P3 or P4 biological containment level and have specialized production equipment, such as 20-liter or larger fermenters, often with continuous flow systems centrifugal separators with a flow rate of 100 liters or more per minute cross-tangential) flow filtration equipment with a total filtration area equal to or greater than 1 square meter and freeze-drying equipment with a condenser capacity of 10 kg of ice or greater in 24 hours. Other indicators of work with high-consequence pathogens are personal protection full or half-suits, class III biological safety cabinets or isolators with similar performance standards, and chambers designed for aerosol challenge. Equipment of these types is examined in UN weapons inspections. The U.S. limits their export to questionable countries.

Therapeutic community treatments

The term 'institutionalization' is relatively recent(35) but the damaging effects of mental hospitals on patients has been recognized for much longer, at least since the early years of this century.(36) In the period after the Second World War, hospitals were organized in a less hierarchical and dehumanized way to avoid or reverse these adverse effects.

Physical Treatments Electroconvulsive treatment ECT

Nevertheless, the frequency of the use of ECT appears to be declining in countries where its use had continued unabated since the end of the last world war (Glen & Scott, 1999). In particular, there seems to be considerable variation in its use, even between clinicians working in the same setting (Glen & Scott, 1999). This is, however, not an argument against the efficacy or rationality of prescribing ECT, as it merely confirms the influence other, non-evidence-related factors have on medical decisions. In fact, there has been a renaissance of ECT research in the USA, which appears to be associated with an upward trend in ECT prescriptions. (Sackeim et al., 2000). One of the drawbacks of ECT is its time-limited action, which tends to dissipate after a couple of weeks and requires follow-up medication. (Sackeim et al., 2001). Another is the occasionally occurring retrograde amnesia, which tends to resolve completely or, more rarely, with some residual impairment (Lisanby et al., 2000...

Evidence For The Role Of Genes In Pd

Evidence for a familial contribution to PD dates back over 100 yr, when Leroux1-2 and Gowers3 both noted that 15 of PD patients reported an affected family member. In the intervening century, the view of the scientific community has fluctuated with regard to the importance of genetics in the etiology of PD. Several studies provided additional evidence for a genetic role in disease causation.4-7 In contrast, a few studies have strongly argued against a genetic role in PD. Most of the negative data have arisen from samples of monozygotic twins with low concordance rates for PD. The largest, a sample of World War II veteran twins, found greater concordance among twins with early-onset

Conversion and dissociation

At the start of the First World War the conditions that we now call conversion and dissociative disorders were common. They were largely thought to occur in women, although similar symptoms were recognized in males. At that time conversion disorders were understood to be conditions in which a psychological conflict occurred to which the patient could not consciously admit. According to Freud, there was at least one motive which could be allowed to emerge into consciousness. For example, a woman may develop hysterical symptoms because a forbidden Oedipal wish to be closer to a man who, to her, represents her father is in conflict with unconscious feelings of guilt that she is thereby displacing her mother in such a relationship. The resolution of both these unconscious wishes with a symptom like a paralysis which prevented a man from courting her would constitute the primary gain of her illness. This notion of primary gain is basic to the Freudian dynamic theory. It should not be...

Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids

Plasmids were first discovered in Japan just after World War II, inhabiting the bacterium Shigella, which causes dysentery. The type of dysentery due to bacteria was originally treated with sulfonamides, the earliest type of antibiotic. Suddenly, strains of Shigella appeared that were resistant to sulfonamide treatment. The genes for resistance to sul-fonamide proved to reside on plasmids, rather than the bacterial chromosome. Plas-mids that confer antibiotic resistance are called R-plasmids or R-factors (Fig. 16.10).

Bioaerosols and Disease Donald E Gardner PhD

Anthrax is a major military threat facing the armed forces and a biological agent that could be used in a terrorist attack. It has been estimated by the Department of Defense that more than ten countries may possess or are suspected of having anthrax as a biological warfare agent. The Department of Defense has plans to vaccinate more than 2.4 million military members against this organism by the year 2005.

Louseborne epidemic typhus

Epidemic typhus may by some people have been considered a disease of the past. Yet, it is a constant threat during each major war. During the Second World War, an outbreak of epidemic typhus caused disease in more than 20 million people in Russia. Thereafter, the largest outbreak occurred some years ago in the over-crowded prisons in Burundi (Raoult et al. 1997). Rickettsia prowazekii can persist in a latent form in people who have long ago had overt epidemic typhus. In people under immunological stress the latent form can become apparent as Brill-Zinsser disease. Recently, there have been outbreaks every year of Brill-Zinsser disease in all regions of the former Soviet Union (Rydkina et al. 1999).

The Global Cancer Burden

The number of new cases of cancer worldwide apparently doubled between 1970 and 2000 and should show even further rates of increase. The estimated number of new cases of cancer was 5.9 million in 1975, 6.4 million in 1980, and 7.6 million in 1985. If age-specific rates remain constant at the 1985 levels, 8.4 million new cases would occur in 1990 and 10.3 million new cases in the year 2000. Beyond 2000, the absolute number of cancer cases should continue to rise as the post-World War II generation crosses the age-risk threshold. In many countries, this generation is the first whose numbers were not reduced by a great war and the first to have benefited from the advances in medical care and treatment witnessed in the second half of this century. In contrast to earlier populations, most members of this generation are still alive at ages where cancer risk rises.

Viruses Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

The molecular biology of the gene and the deployment of the electron microscope (increasing resolving power a thousand-fold over the light microscope) after the Second World War led to refinement in the concept of a bacterium, both biochemically morphologically. That articulation began with a new concept of the virus. The word virus (latin for slimy liquid, poison, offensive odor or taste) had changed its meaning over the centuries. In the sixteenth century, it was used in its original sense to refer to poison or venom, as in the story of Cleopatra pouring the virus of an asp into a wound made in her arm by her own teeth. In the eighteenth century, one referred to virus in the sense of contagious pus. In the nineteenth century, viruses were considered as microbes. Bacteria were isolated using filters, permeable to toxins but impermeable to the bacteria, but there were anomalies. Some infectious agents were so small that they could pass through a bacterial filter. These were called...

Theoretical sources empirical sources

IPT is based on interpersonal theory stemming from the post-Second World War work of Adolph Meyer, Harry Stack Sullivan, (17) and later John Bowlby and others. The general principle derived from these theories is that life events occurring after the formative years influence psychopathology. IPT uses this principle in a non-aetiological fashion it does not pretend to discern the cause of a depressive episode, but uses the connection between current life events and mood disorder to help the patient understand and deal with his or her episode of illness. IPT is further based on psychosocial and life events' research of depression that has bolstered these theories by demonstrating the relationships between depression and loss (complicated bereavement), role disputes (e.g. bad marriages), role transitions, and interpersonal deficits.

Table 3 Classification of thyroid cancer

Large component of radioiodine isotopes, in the Marshall Islands following atmospheric nuclear weapons testing was that exposed persons developed thyroid nodules and an increased incidence of cancers after several decades. It was anticipated at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, which also released a large amount of iodine isotopes, that there would be an increase in the number of thyroid cancers but the rising incidence within only five years was surprising at the time. In retrospect, this early appearance was predictable as it merely reflects the progressive broadening of the Gaussian distribution of risk on account of the very large exposed population to that event. In the 15 years since the Chernobyl accident, it appears that the population at highest risk of developing thyroid cancers is the group that ranged from the second trimester in utero to about five years in age at the time of exposure and that the annual incidence of new cases may now have peaked.

Ionizing Radiation Roy E Albert MD

Ionizing radiation is undoubtedly one of the most intensely studied of all toxic agents. The impetus for understanding its manifold effects came from its extensive use since the beginning of the century in medical diagnosis and in treating cancer. With the development of atomic energy during World War II, the field expanded dramatically. Atomic energy became one of the country's largest industries. The potential health hazards from occupational and environmental sources of radiation became an important area for research it spawned a new field in the post-World War II era of measurement and control called health physics.

Historical development of mental health social work 1920 to 1939

However, the major impetus to developing mental health social work at the beginning of the twentieth century was related to the impact of the First World War on the approach of leading psychiatrists and psychologists to intervention strategies. Western approaches to aggression, death, and mental breakdown were influenced by the carnage of First World War. It led Freud to develop his theory on death and aggression. Some British psychologists (e.g. William Rivers) and psychiatrists (e.g. Charles Myers) who worked with shell-shocked soldiers (the term used then to denote post-traumatic stress disorder) accepted that the soldiers' reactions were due to the experience of war. They concluded that to reduce suffering it was necessary to work with children and adults suffering from mental distress and illness outside the psychiatric hospital through personal and social support, including counselling and medication.(2) This approach lead to the establishment of the Tavistock Clinic in London,...

Principles of research

These principles grew up as a result of the revulsion felt universally to the practices in so-called 'research' carried out by the Nazi regime on concentration camp victims in the Second World War. This set of principles has been reaffirmed repeatedly in the declaration of the World Medical Association (Tokyo 1964 revised in Helsinki 1975) and in guidelines issued by the World Health Organization. The idea that research could be justified on the grounds of 'good of society' should never prevail over the interests and welfare of any particular human being ( Lemaire.etal 1997).

Ageing and depression

Any age-group difference in the prevalence of depression could be due to either a protective effect of ageing or a cohort effect in which older generations are less prone to depression than younger ones. There have been claims that generations born after the Second World War have a higher risk of depression, but the evidence is only from cross-sectional studies in which participants are asked to recall episodes of depression at various stages of their life. I27) It is hardly surprising that older persons are less likely to recall episodes of depression that occurred in their youth. To sort out whether the age-group differences are due to ageing or cohort effects requires longitudinal observations over decades. Unfortunately, few longitudinal data are available at the present time.

Family and personal history

In eliciting the personal history the examiner might need to be aware of the historical context at the time in question. Some older patients, however affluent they may be now, grew up in poverty or other adverse circumstances (e.g. a father killed in the First World War) which could still be affecting their psychological lives. Similarly, education may have been disrupted in a way that is more unusual nowadays. Some patients, notably women, relate how they missed education because they had to look after their younger siblings after mother died or father was killed, because the remaining parent had to go out to work for the family to survive. A precise enquiry

Experience with Hunger

Ingo Potrykus, the experimental team's head scientist, knew all too well how hunger felt. Born on December 5, 1933, in Hirschberg, Germany, he had grown up during World War II. His father, a doctor, was killed near the end of the war, and after Germany's defeat, Potrykus and his brothers had to beg, steal and scrounge for food, New York Times reporter Jon Christensen wrote in an article about Potrykus published on November 21, 2000.

Prevention and Treatment

During the first half of the twentieth century, syphilis was a major cause of mental illness and blindness, and a significant contributor to the incidence of heart disease and stroke. Syphilis was common in the United States during World War II, present in about 5 of military recruits, but by the mid-1950s, it was almost eradicated. This was accomplished by aggressively locating syphilis cases and their sexual contacts and treating them with penicillin, which became generally available after the war. A number of factors, however, conspired to cause a resurgence of the disease. Inner-city poverty, prostitution, and drug use were linked to a high incidence of syphilis, which exceeded 100 new cases per 100,000 population in at least seven cities in 1990. Since then, renewed efforts in education, case finding, and treatment have caused a dramatic drop in new cases. The presence of the AIDS epidemic added urgency to syphilis control efforts, because syphilis, like other STDs that cause...

Irradiation 2231 Introduction

Studies on the effect of ionizing radiation upon living organisms started after the discoveries of X-rays in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896. The first patent for the use of irradiation as a food processing technology was filed in 1905, but sustained effort to use radiation to preserve foods did not begin until the end of World War II. The first commercial use of food irradiation occurred

Microbiological Diagnostics of Bacterial Pathogens Aims Tasks and Current Limitations

Three important fields of microbiological bacterial diagnostics are (1) medical and food microbiology, (2) environmental microbiology, and (3) the detection of biological warfare agents. These fields differ considerably with regard to the diversity of bacteria to be detected and the time scale for diagnosis 9 . Methods for the detection and identification of microorganisms applied in medical microbiology and food technology are directed towards the reliable detection and or identification at the species subspecies strain level of one or a few microbes out of many that may be present in the diagnostic sample 10, 11 . The further major aspect of clinical microbiology is characterization of the antibiotic resistance pattern revealed by an isolated bacterium. Microbial diagnostic methods in environmental and industrial microbiology, on the other hand, are applied to obtain a picture of the structure ofthe entire microbial community under analysis 12, 13 . Requirements for this class of...

Development Of Legal Controls Over The Advertising Of Medicines

In 1912 the House of Commons set up a Select Committee on Patent Medicines to investigate all aspects of the trade in such medicines and the extent to which they were controlled by law. Its report, published in August 1914, made it clear that the law was inadequate. Many of these medicines were secret remedies , i.e. made to a formula known only to the manufacturer. The Committee made a number of excellent recommendations, especially in relation to the advertising of medicines. It recommended that advertisements relating to cures for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, paralysis, Bright's disease, fits, epilepsy, locomotor ataxy, venereal diseases and sexual weakness be prohibited. Moreover, advertisements likely to suggest that a medicine is an abortifacient be prohibited''. In addition, it should be made unlawful to issue advertisements inviting sufferers from any ailment to correspond with the vendor of a remedy, or to include fictitious testimonials. Several other...

Infectious Complications of Acquired Immunodeficiency

Pneumocystosis, a severe infectious lung disease, was recognized just after World War II in Europe when it caused deaths among hospitalized, malnourished, premature infants. Subsequently, scattered cases were recognized among immunodeficient patients until the onset of the AIDS epidemic, when the incidence soared. By 1995, almost 128,000 cases had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Historical Perspective

The measurement of gas concentration before World War II was largely gravimetric for chamber or room calorimeters and volumetric when measuring basal metabolic rates of individuals. The classic portable basal metabolic rate apparatus of Benedict ( 4) depended on a closed system, in which a container of oxygen would decrease in volume in proportion to the uptake of oxygen by the subject, while the CO2 was absorbed but not measured. Oxygen consumption was then translated into calories per hour by assuming an amount of expired CO2, which would yield a nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.82 and hence a caloric equivalent for oxygen of 4.825 kcal (20.19 kJ) liter-1. The wartime events of the early 1940s provided a stimulus to develop more rapid and accurate methods of gas analysis, particularly for the new demands of combat aviation at higher altitudes. Following World War II, physical methods of gas analysis began to dominate the field of gas exchange. Mass spectrometry was...

Big Cat Sightings In Ayrshire

Brechfa Beast

(1) The Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia) was common in England, Wales, and Scotland until the end of the fifteenth century. It was exterminated everywhere in Britain by the 1860s except in Scotland, where after World War I, it began to increase in numbers. It grows up to 3 feet 6 inches in length, slightly larger than a domestic cat. The coat is a gray-brown or tabby color, with white on the throat. Its head is broader, teeth sharper, limbs longer, and tail shorter than a domestic cat's. It has a bushy, blunt-ended tail with a well-defined pattern of black stripes. The average weight of males is

Counselling in the workplace

Counselling in the workplace was first introduced in the United States, after the Second World War, as Employee Assistance Programs ( EAPs) designed to rehabilitate those oil-industry employees with alcohol problems. EAPs have become widespread in North America and are increasing in the United Kingdom, and now address a wide range of employee problems including stress. They are reported to achieve good results in terms of the percentage of employees who are rehabilitated for work, the reduction in alcohol consumption, improvement of work performance, and cost savings to the company.(6 68 EAPs provide a comprehensive confidential counselling service to employees and their families, allowing employee's problems to be identified and resolved at an early stage, and are normally incorporated into the company's benefits package as a form of private emotional health care. EAPs include 24-hour access, telephone counselling, and helplines as well as individual counselling offered at short...

Treatment Of Children With Hyperthyroidism

With external radiation exposure, there is a known risk of thyroid cancer in children that may decrease with increasing age at exposure (62). Studies of radiation exposure related to fallout from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands and the Chernobyl disaster have also shown higher rates of thyroid cancer in children (63). However, less is known regarding the risk of thyroid cancer following the medical use of RAI in children, and a comprehensive study of thyroid and nonthyroid cancer risks in this setting has not been performed. At prescribed activities of 3.7-7.4 MBq (100-200 pCi) per gram of thyroid tissue, one study did not detect an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in children (64). However, definitive long-term data on the oncogenic effects of therapeutic doses of RAI in children is lacking.

Laccase Based Defense Against Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents

The 2001 anthrax letter cases in the USA, and the 1995 sarin attack in Tokyo illustrate the threat that biological and chemical weapons pose when used by terrorists. They also emphasize how important it is for security, emergency, and medical agencies to be adequately equipped to decontaminate large, open areas such as subways, airports, and other public facilities when attacked by biological or chemical warfare agents. Traditionally used decontamination systems are not suited for such tasks, as they generally involve chlorine-based chemistry, and their corrosiveness can cause bodily harm as well as material damage, particularly on sensitive or electronic equipments. Development of new, milder, and more universally applicable decontamination systems is highly desirable. Industrial oxido-reductases (such as laccases) hold promise because of their ability to oxidize a wide range of harmful substances, including biological warfare agents and nerve agents like VX and anthrax spores. A...

Bioethics And Its Limitations

The first three principles were set out by the U.S. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1979) in The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. In many respects, however, they reassert the guidelines articulated in the Nuremberg Code, which forms part of the judgment on German doctors accused of crimes against humanity in their experiments on concentration camp inmates during World War II (1). The Allied Powers were slow to acknowledge that similar concerns could be raised about some of their research and clinical practices (2). In the United States and the United Kingdom, growing concern was expressed during the 1950s and 1960s about the way in which some patients were being treated (3-6). Some of this was reflected in the drafting of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964 (1 current text can be found at (7), but a further set of U.S. scandals (8,9) provoked Congress to...

Identification of a males geographical origin

Some cases are known where a high correlation between Y-STRs and Y-SNPs has been observed, such as the statistically significant Y-chromosomal differentiation between Polish and German populations, which is assumed to be a genetic consequence of politically forced population movements during and especially after World War II (Kayser et al., 2005). Furthermore, some European metapopu-lations, as identified by their Y-STR haplotypes (Roewer et al., 2005), correlate well with specific Y-SNP haplogroups, e.g. the most characteristic Eastern European Y-STR haplotype (17,13,30,25,10,11,13,10-14), together with its close relatives, is associated with Y-SNP haplogroup R1(xR1a1), whereas the most characteristic Western European Y-STR haplotype (14,13,29,24,11,13,13,1114), together with its close relatives, is associated with Y-SNP haplogroup R1a1

Cyclops Mountains

Mali Empire

In Hollandia lived several Dutch and German planters, the latter displaced from former German New Guinea to the east after the end of World War I. Reflecting on colonization of foreign territories Mayr wrote in his diary Should one really interfere to such an extent with these natives, and deprive them of their old culture, replacing it by European civilization I admit this is a very fundamental question which really amounts to the question Should one do any colonizing at all A solution must be found to protect the rights of the natives, and, in spite of a certain strictness of regulations, to do the best for them.

The World of the Microorganism

Microorganisms are a key component of biological warfare along with chemicals that disrupt homeostasis. The anthrax attack that followed the 9 11 terrorist attacks clearly illustrated how a dusting of anthrax in an envelope can be lethal to people in an office building. Anthrax is a disease caused by the microorganism Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms endospores and infiltrates

Treating Bacterial Diseases

Most pharmacies today carry many antibiotics for treating bacterial diseases, yet until World War II, no such medicines existed. Not until the 19th century was it discovered that bacteria could cause disease. Much of modern medicine rests on the pioneering work of the researchers discussed here.

Conflict Resolution Reconciliation

Peace is not sought for peace's sake but in order to preserve mutual interests. The same principle is known in human affairs. For example, the idea underlying the European Community was that nations with a recent history of mutual warfare may show an increased tendency to keep the peace if they are made mutually dependent on each other. Europeans have worked on increasing relationship value since World War II, recently culminating in the adoption of a common currency.

The Psychodynamic Perspective

During the 1940s and 1950s, many writers made contributions that would eventually be incorporated into the contemporary view (Stone, 1986). Just after World War II, the term borderline began to appear in the formal analytic literature. Schmideberg (1947, 1959, p. 399) presaged themes still relevant today. The borderline was not just quantitatively halfway between the neuroses and psychoses, she stated. Instead, the blending and combination of these modes of reaction produce something qualitatively different. Borderlines are stable in their instability, she argued (or, as Elizabeth quotes her father, Georgia is a troubled soul who can't get her life together ). All borderlines experience disturbances affecting almost every area of their personality and life, in particular, personal relations and depth of feeling (1959, p. 399). Other writers influenced the borderline construct without using the term. For example, Erikson (1956) contributed indirectly to the borderline construct through...

In Remembrance of Fritz Bender Esq 19071986

Fritz Bender was born in Heidelberg, the romantic and historical town on the banks of the Neckar. It is here, as well as in many cities strewn across the country, that one can find signs of his work as a unique master of the building trade. City council buildings in Mannheim, and Munich still bear evidence of his skill as plasterer and builder - a sorry consequence of the wide-spread damage caused by the bombings in the Second World War.

Psychoanalytic Theory and Aging

Freudian theory is preeminently a theory of early childhood, yet given many of Freud's adult life experiences, this is somewhat ironic. From about 4 years before the publication of Interpretation of Dreams in 1899, Freud began describing himself as old in letters to his friend Wilhelm Fliess (even though Freud was only 40 at the time). He became very depressed and remained so for years after the death of his aged father Jacob in 1896. Nearing the age of 60, Freud agonized over the fate of his adult sons in World War I. Thus, throughout his later adult life, he struggled with his feelings of being old and unproductive. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic theory and Freud's own psychoanalytic practice with young and older adults always kept its clinical eye toward early childhood as the root of any adult problem.

Changing family patterns

Recent decades have seen massive changes in the pattern of many children's family lives. The most obvious markers are the dramatic increases in rates of ivorce, single parenthood, and step-family formation.(9) In the years immediately after the Second World War, just 6 per cent of British couples divorced within 20 years of marriage. By the mid-1960s that figure had increased fourfold recent estimates suggest that almost 40 per cent of all marriages begun in the 1990s will eventually end in divorce. On these projections, approaching a fifth of all 10-year-olds, and over a quarter of 16-year-olds, will experience the breakdown of their parents' marriage in childhood or adolescence. For most, this will be followed by a period in a single-parent household for a substantial minority, further family transitions will mean that they become part of a step family. In the early 1990s, almost one in five children in the United Kingdom lived with a separated single parent or in a step family. In...

A figure of speech in which one entity is described in terms of another

The Second World War was influential in shaping metaphors of attention and working memory. In current discussions, working memory is occasionally referred to as the brain's 'desktop' this is an interesting example of a second-order, or palimpsestic metaphor 'desktop' is borrowed from the computer world, which was imported from the pre-computer office environment.

The alert state required for the above

Postulated inner faculties of the mind, including attention. The interest was renewed only after the Second World War, with the application of information processing theory, originally developed for warfare purposes, to the cognitive sciences (Broadbent 1958). A large body of work on attention has been accumulated since then, both in psychology and neurobiology. It ranges from investigation of the orienting reflex ( sensitization) to auditory and visual perception.A substantial part of what we currently know on attention stems from the analysis of vision in primates, at levels ranging from behaviour via functional neuroimaging and neuroanatomy to single cell activity (Posner and Petersen 1990 Desimone and Duncan 1995 Egeth and Yantis 1997 Kanwisher and Wojciulik 2000).

Competing to be valued and loved and losing

As we emphasised, human relationships provide an array of valuable resources to individuals in the form of protection, care, support, and opportunities for reproduction (Buss, 1999 Gilbert, 1989). They are also physiologically powerful, including effects on the immune system (Cacioppo et al., 2000). It is worth remembering that viruses (and other pathogens) have played a large role in human evolution the mortality rate was often high in early hominids. The influenza epidemic of 1918, at the end of the First World War, killed more people than died in that war. If access to affectionate, supportive relationships aids the immune system, survival from illness, and disability, and offers advantages of cooperative activity and sharing, then abilities to secure these relationships will be key drivers in evolution. Hence, we would expect humans to be highly attuned and responsive to them (Cacioppo et al., 2000), to be affected by their presence or loss, and to compete for them.

Principles of Chemotherapy

During World War II, sailors who were accidentally exposed to nitrogen mustard following the explosion of a ship developed marrow and lymphoid hypoplasia.1 This serendipitous discovery led to the first clinical trial conducted in 1942 using nitrogen mustard in patients with malignant lymphomas at Yale University.2 This marked the beginning of a new era of research in the quest for effective and safe drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.

Alphonse Chapanis Professor Emeritus Johns Hopkins University

The second half of the 20th century has witnessed advances in medical practice and technology that can only be described as spectacular. The discovery of penicillin in 1928 and its first use to treat wounded soldiers in World War II forecast a dramatic increase in the number of drugs available to the modern practitioner. Not only have new drugs appeared in profusion, but also new methods of manufacturing them genetic engineering, for example have been devised. As a result, the U.S. Pharmacopoeia lists thousands of clinically approved drugs worthy of consideration, a number that taxes the capacity of human memories. Although the benefits of these developments cannot be denied, we have also become acutely aware that they have created new problems, because, for one thing, we are continually discovering complex interactions among drugs, and between drugs and the people who take them. Meanwhile, at about the same time as all these medical advances were being made, an entirely different...

The expansion of psychiatry after 1945

The Second World War coincided with a major transformation of the psychiatric specialty. The war had vividly demonstrated the frequency of mental disorders in the United States they had proved to be the leading cause of medical discharges from the military service and the primary cause of almost 40 per cent of selective service rejections. The previously prevailing view that psychiatry was a minor and often somewhat despised medical discipline, concerned primarily with the custodial care of psychologically deviant and potentially troublesome individuals, was progressively dispelled. The preservation and the restoration of mental health an expression from now on often used by national and international institutions began to be considered by governments as an important task. The fundamental changes which took place after 1945 and shaped psychiatry as we know it today were the result of this new atmosphere and of the emergence of new perspectives in the three traditional domains the...

Guillaume Apollinaire the Lover Assassinated

Apollinaire Portrait

The nature and the neurological consequences of the shell wound to the head of the famous French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, on March 17, 1916, during World War I, remains unclear. However, his contemporaries and biographers have been unanimous in stating that this event affected a major shift in his life. His personality and behavior changed dramatically, and his affective relationships were deeply modified, the most significant example being his rapid disinterest for his fianc e Madeleine, to whom he had written passionate letters nearly every day before the trauma. The study of Apollinaire's letters, scarce medical reports, available memories from friends, and Apollinaire's helmet allow one to better understand the type of brain lesion he had and why neurobehavioral dysfunction developed. While an 'intracranial abscess' had been emphasized initially, clinical manifestations, free interval, no infectious problems, and quick resolution of hemiparesis and seizures after a burr hole...

Pediculus humanus the human clothing louse body louse

The body louse is morphologically very similar to the head louse and the two species were until recently treated as two subspecies, P. humanus humanus (synonym P. humanus corporis) and P. humanus capitis. However, the biology and medical importance of the two species are distinctly different. The primary microhabitat for all stages of the body louse is the clothes of humans. The blood-feeding stages (i.e. all stages except the eggs) only leave the clothes of its host in order to blood-feed on the host's skin. Each individual louse feeds about four times in 24h. The gravid female body louse usually glues her eggs to fibres in the seams. On rare occasions, she may attach eggs onto body hairs. The body louse is present in all parts of the world on persons who live under poor hygienic conditions and who cannot wash or change their clothes regularly. Thus, infestations with body lice are associated with poverty, very poor hygienic conditions, and (often) a cold climate where people need to...

Recognition testA test situation in which the subject judges the familiarity or recency of a stimulus

Of the world that cannot be easily discriminated, and whose discrimination involves two response categories, yes or no, e.g. familiar or unfamiliar. This discrimination is not absolute, but rather based on a number of factors, including the discriminability of input signals and the 'criteria used by the 'system, themselves shaped by the price paid for false decisions. These factors depend on experience and 'context. The signal detection theory was originally developed to deal with the detection of sonar and radar signals in the Second World War. It is a prominent example of the application of engineering and information processing theories to human psychology a related example is the application of such theories to 'attention. 2It is important to note that the use of the term retrieval in the dual-process theory of recognition refers to a limited aspect of retrieval (see also 'recall). Retrieval in general is a universal 'phase of mem-ory,without which no stored information can be...

The Case of Toby Dependent Personality Disorder

When Toby's brother graduated from high school, World War II was being waged. He enlisted in the U.S. Army, which was the patriotic thing to do, with the intention of returning home after the war to work with his father in the store. He would probably marry his high-school sweetheart and raise a family in that same town. However, he never returned from the war. He was killed in action. Toby's mother became a Gold Star Mother, devoted herself to his memory, and idealized his role as a soldier. Toby's father died 6 months after his son was killed. And his father, Toby's beloved Papa, died soon after. Within 1 year, Toby had lost her grandfather, father, and brother, who were collectively her anchor, support, and strength. She was 19 years old and in college that year. She would never return to the family home, and she would never again trust that those she depended on would stay safe and return if they went away.

Manager of Largescale Ornithological Projects Dr LC Sanford

Sanford was on the surgical staff of the New Haven Hospital and the physician of the Yale Football team. Because of his hunting and conservation interests he was, at that time, also one of the leading personalities of the Connecticut Fish and Game Commission and came in close contact with Theodore Roosevelt while he was President of the United States. Sanford's activities regarding the AMNH had been triggered by his friend Dr. Thomas Barbour (18841946), curator and later director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), Harvard University, who had pointed out to him that the MCZ's collections were more complete than those of the AMNH. Thus, as a trustee of the AMNH since 1921, Sanford competed with Barbour and the MCZ (Mayr, pers. comm., and Bock 1994a). He was a born collector and particularly enjoyed possessing things which others did not have and partly because they did not have them. However, he wanted nothing for himself and took delight in...

A framework for analysis production innovation institutions

In order to set the scene for the type of interactions between the three spheres we will discuss briefly the interaction between agricultural production and the socioeconomic sphere. Over the past century, agricultural production has changed dramatically (den Hond et al. 1999). Before World War II agricultural production was characterised by a relatively low input of capital, by high labour input, mixed farming and relatively low yields. For most crops, yields were restricted by local climatic, geological (soil) and ecological conditions, although mineral fertilisers were known and applied already in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the period of reconstruction just after World War II, political and socio-economic pressure changed the nature of agricultural production. Food security at low prices for a growing population, self-sufficiency in agricultural production and securing farmer income at acceptable levels became political priorities. These policy objectives...

Evidence For A Genetic Component In Parkinsons Disease

In later studies, Tanner and colleagues (11) examined concordance rates in the NAS NRC World War II Veteran Twins Registry. Screening 19,842 white male twins identified 193 twin pairs with at least one individual affected with PD. Overall there was no statistically significant difference in concordance rates in MZ twins (15.5 ) compared to DZ twins (11.1 ). However, when considering 16 pairs where one twin had onset of symptoms prior to age 50, concordance rates were significantly

Legal control of recreational drugs

In Britain, the Establishment was startled out of its laissez-faire position during the First World War by the discovery that soldiers were finding life in the trenches more bearable if they had a supply of cocaine to take back after leave in London. The Defence of the Realm Act Regulation 40B (1916) prohibited sale of cocaine or opiates to soldiers. After some fairly sordid newspaper reports of London nightlife in the immediate postwar period, including lurid descriptions of the drug-related death of a well-known actress, this entered civil law as the Dangerous Drugs Act 1920. For a while, the response to drug problems looked set to follow the American penal route, but in 1926 the government-appointed Rolleston Committee recommended that addiction should be regarded as an illness rather than a crime. Long-term maintenance on an opiate prescription for addicts who were unable to abstain was validated, and the 'British system' was born. In deference to the 1925 Geneva Convention,...

Phenomenology of causality

Unquestionably, the psychological study of causality began with Michotte (1954, 1962) with his first experiments being carried out before the Second World War (Michotte 1941 see also Nuttin 1966, on the importance of Mi-chotte in contemporary psychology). Similar work, done independently by Heider and Simmel (1944), demonstrated before Michotte (1950) that we can see intentions and emotions in animate objects. His series of experiments on this topic constitute one of the landmarks in experimental psychology of the twentieth century, and can be compared with only a few other instances of research that really changed our way of conceiving psychology such as Wertheimer's work on the phi phenomenon and Pavlov's classical conditioning.

Arsenic European Pharmacopoeia 231

The test identifies the substance to be examined as a salt of arsenic(III) or arsenic(V), or a compound containing bound arsenic made available for analysis by chemical degradation. Due to their potential toxicity, arsenic substances must be considered mostly a reminiscence of historical interest. Before World War II a fairly large group of substances containing covalently bound arsenic was used in the treatment of protozoa. One of the most widely known arsenic drugs was arsphenamine (Figure 3.9.1), which was used in

Abnormal Behavior and Personality

The concept of personality disorders requires an understanding of their role in the study of abnormal behavior. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM ) is considered the bible of mental disorders by psychologists and psychiatrists. The first official edition, published in 1952, was heavily influenced by previous systems established by the Army and the Veterans Administration to assist in understanding the mental health problems of World War II servicemen. In time, the DSM evolved beyond its original military purpose, becoming the standard or compendium for all of abnormal behavior. Now in its fourth edition, the DSM-IV is widely considered the official classification system or taxonomy for use by mental health professionals. It describes all mental disorders widely believed to exist, as well as a variety of others provisionally put forward for further research. Twelve personality disorders are included in DSM-IV, 10 of which are officially accepted, and 2 of...

Led by Public Servants

Following the tradition set by the early Cape Botanists the conservation of renewable resources throughout the region, from the soil through the vegetation to wild animals, was led by public servants. In the case of nature conservation, they enjoyed only sporadic professional support from particular individuals outside government. The domination of public servants was a progressive process, beginning in the 1930s and accelerating after World War II, as jurisdictions acquired the necessary skills and built up specialized professional agencies. Once in place government scientific resource managers maintained their pre-eminence for 20-30 years into the 1990s. Many conservation leaders had a formal scientific training, although there were notable exceptions. Importantly, as a body, government-employed conservationists combined the best traditions of a professional civil servant with their scientific discipline, usually agriculture, forestry or a biological science. They were loyal to the...

The Committee on Common Problems of Genetics Paleontology and Systematics 19421949

The first number was distributed in May 1944. This led to further discussion among other members or with the original correspondents and Mayr edited three additional Bulletins. Gretel Mayr contributed also to this effort by typing mimeographed stencils. Otherwise there was, during World War II, virtually no interaction between the Eastern and Western Groups.

Life in New York City

They had purchased a home at 138 Sunset Lane (Fig. 3.4 a, b). Friends who lived in Tenafly (Professor Franz Schrader at Columbia University) had recommended a real estate agent to them. When consulted, he asked how large a down payment Mayr could afford and how large a monthly mortgage payment he could make. When he had these figures he said Okay, then let us go to the NW section of Tenafly, where the 8,000 houses are. And indeed they liked one of them and bought it. At that time Tenafly was still relatively rural. Mayr's house was the only one on that side of the street, and there was an old abandoned apple orchard where screech owls and flickers nested and bob-white quail walked around. They tried to have a vegetable garden, but there were lots of rabbits. In later years, the area was completely built up. They stayed in close contact with their families and Erwin Stresemann, and saw all of them on visits to Germany with their two daughters Christa (born in 1936) and Susanne (born in...

Friendships at School and University

At the gymnasium in Dresden, his classmates Robert Hensel and Karl Baessler were Ernst's best friends. They remained in contact throughout their lives. Mayr visited Baessler 60 years later in Bamberg where, after having left Leipzig at the end of World War II, he had established a publishing company, and they corresponded until shortly before Baessler's death in 1990. Hensel became a metallurgist and later went to America where he lived in Indianapolis. However, they saw each other only once or twice after his arrival in the States. In Greifswald, during his first semesters, Ernst met one friend for life, Martin Hennig, and commented It is somewhat ironic that the best friend of my student days should be a theologian. But except for a few Christian dogmas, our thinking about man's obligations, about

New York and Tenafly New Jersey

When World War II broke out in August 1939, the British ornithologist David Lack (1910-1973) who was traveling in the United States happened to be a houseguest with Ernst and Gretel Mayr in Tenafly, New Jersey. They had long conversations and reflected on the certainty that the war would cause destruction and misery in many parts of Europe. Their friendship became deeper and stronger through this shared experience. During the first 2 years, communication with families and friends in Germany was maintained via Switzerland and Japan. When the United States entered the war in late 1941 exchange of letters was, of course, no longer possible and the question loomed large Would the American Museum be able to keep the German at his work or would they be forced to dismiss him At that time Mayr was sitting feverishly over his major work, Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942e), often far into the night. Later we found out, Gretel Mayr wrote in her reminiscences, that this aroused...

Prevalence incidence and disease expectancy

Low prevalence rates have also been reported for certain Pacific island populations, (38) but uncertainties about the extent of case-finding makes the interpretation of such reports problematic. Two carefully planned surveys in Taiwan (see Table.3) were separated by 15 years during which major social changes had taken place. While the total mental morbidity increased, the prevalence of schizophrenia decreased from 2.1 to 1.4 per 1000. In both surveys, the aboriginal Taiwanese had significantly lower rates than the mainland Chinese who had migrated to the island after the Second World War.


Although the breeding of plants and animals goes back thousands of years, only in the last couple of centuries has genetics emerged as a field of scientific study. Classical genetics emerged in the 1800s when the inheritance patterns of such things as hair or eye color were examined and when Gregor Mendel performed his famous experiments on pea plants. Techniques revealing how the inherited characteristics that we observe daily are linked to their underlying biochemical causes have only been developed since World War II. The resulting revelation of the molecular basis of inheritance has resulted in the increasing use of the term molecular. Often the term molecular biology refers to the biology of those molecules related to genes, gene products and heredity in other words, the term molecular biology is often substituted for the perhaps more appropriate term, molecular genetics.A more broad-minded definition of molecular biology includes all aspects of the study of life from a molecular...

The social wave

At the end of the Second World War there was a great desire for social change one of its aspects was the belief that everyone had a 'right to health' or at least the right to receive adequate medical care regardless of ability to pay. This resulted in the creation of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom in 1948 and the Social Security system in France, together with similar developments in other countries. The social perspective, which was one of the basic principles underlying these developments, initiated major institutional changes in psychiatry. They were the result of a number of factors the necessity to give to the whole population an easy access to psychiatric care, and also the belief that social elements played an important role in the aetiology of the mental disorders and that they could greatly contribute to the healing process, with the aim of progressively reintegrating the patient in the community.


Out of turmoil, destruction, and death in World War II came research that led to the artificial kidney and recognition that allograft destruction was an immunological event. Peter Medawar described the accelerated second set rejection of mouse skin grafts while trying to understand why skin allografts always failed on severely burned pilots of the British Royal Air Force. Meanwhile, in Rotterdam, Willem Kolff developed a primitive artificial kidney to treat renal failure that followed severe crush injury during bombing of that city. In the early post-war years, Boston's Peter Bent Brigham Hospital assembled a team, which included Kolff that began human kidney transplantation and refined the artificial kidney. The first kidney transplant at the Brigham, in 1947, came from a cadaver donor and was revascularized by the recipient's antecubital vessels. The graft failed after three days, but it functioned long enough to clear the recipient's uremic coma and permitted recovery from...

The Threat

Terrorism can be defined as an attack or threat of an attack on the innocent to create fear, intimidate, inflict harm, and or affect economic well-being. These acts have often been politically motivated, but may not always be so. To create terror, perpetrators of bioterrorism use pathogens or toxins as weapons. A number of bacteria, viruses, and fungi pose serious health risks to humans, animals, and plants, and the use of them as bioweapons can have serious consequences on human health, economic development, social stability, and political activities of nations worldwide. Moreover, technology has developed to such a point that there is a greater potential and increased likelihood that biological weapons will be accessible to individuals or small groups of individuals instead of just state organized institutions. Sophisticated high technology, such as that used for nuclear weapon development, is not needed to produce large quantities of weaponizable pathogens, and large quantities of...

The Race Begins

In fall 1951, Watson, then 23 years old, joined the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge, where scientists were using X-ray crystallography to study protein molecules. There he met 35-year-old British scientist Francis Harry Compton Crick. Born on June 8, 1916, in Northampton, England, to a shoe manufacturer and his wife, Crick still did not have his Ph.D. at the time he met Watson. The British scientist had received a B.S. in physics from University College, London, in 1937, but World War II had interrupted his scientific career. When he began his schooling once more, he found his interests turning toward biology.

The Genetic Code

Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born on July 25, 1920, in London. Her well-to-do father at first discouraged her interest in science because he believed that higher education and careers made women unhappy. She persisted, however, and eventually studied chemistry at Newnham, a women's college in Cambridge University, graduating in 1941. Franklin did research on the structure of carbon molecules for the Coal Utilization Research Association during World War II and earned a Ph.D. from Cambridge on the basis of this work in 1945.


The First World War prompted increasing interest in psychodynamic explanations of neurosis because of the large number of serving soldiers who suffered from 'shell-shock.' Some exhibited deaf-mutism, blindness, amnesia, or other hysterical symptoms. Many complained of recurrent nightmares, or had waking visions of the horrors of the trenches which were of hallucinatory intensity. The devastating effects of prolonged lack of sleep were not fully appreciated. The term 'shell-shock', introduced in 1915, indicated the current belief that proximity to exploding shells, even without physical injury, could damage the nervous system. But the British Army was slow to accept the actuality of what we should now call post-traumatic stress disorder, and the diagnosis of shell-shock was no defence in cases where men had deserted

Setting Standards

Born on June 30, 1926, in Brooklyn, New York, Paul Berg was the son of a clothing manufacturer. His study of biochemistry at Pennsylvania State College was interrupted by World War II, in which he fought in the navy. He finally obtained his bachelor's degree in 1948. He earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Western Reserve University, now Case Western Reserve, in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1952. Before he came to Stanford in 1959, he taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Most experts now think that the chances of a dangerous genetically modified microorganism escaping a laboratory on its own are small. Especially after the al-Qaeda attacks of September 2001, however, fear has grown that terrorists might create and release such deadly microbes deliberately. Defectors from Soviet biological warfare laboratories reported in the 1990s that the laboratories had conducted genetic engineering experiments on disease-causing bacteria, for instance.

Anxiety disorder

The risk of suicide is increased following head injury. In a study of Finnish soldiers who suffered brain injuries during the Second World War and were followed up for 25 years, 1.6 per cent had killed themselves, about a threefold greater risk than the general male population. (48) A meta-analysis of six civilian cohorts followed up over 40 years found a threefold risk compared with standard mortality rates.(49) The increased risk attributable to head injury is probably slightly less than these estimates.

Key Events

The second event was the reorganization of the Southern African Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) which gave rise to a regional network of highly influential conservation leaders. The network encouraged free thinking and greatly facilitated the spread of the Fulbright-catalysed model that first emerged in Zimbabwe, but had extended to Botswana by late 1965. SARCCUS was one of three such bodies set up in Africa by the Technical Cooperation Commission for Africa South of the Sahara (CCTA) after World War II. Initially, as its title implies, SARCCUS was an international organization concerned with soil conservation, but it quickly expanded to cover all renewable resources. To start with it comprised senior government agriculturists, but it was reorganized into 11 standing committees, including Management and Use in Nature Conservation (MUNC), responsible for nature conservation wildlife management and use. It was served by a small secretariat of one...


The slave trade between West Africa and the Americas, and the resulting commerce, were responsible for the introduction and the widespread geographic distribution of an African mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in the New World during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. This species became highly adapted to humans and urban environments and was spread throughout the tropics of the world by sailing ships. The species first infested port cities and then moved inland as urbanization expanded. Because Ae. aegypti had evolved to become intimately associated with humans, preferring to feed on them and to share their dwellings, this species became a very efficient epidemic vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses (Gubler 1997). Therefore, when these viruses were introduced into port cities infested with Ae. aegypti, epidemics occurred. It was in this setting that major epidemics of dengue fever occurred during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, as the global shipping industry developed and port...


As discussed above, the first comprehensive legislation on colors appeared in 1906. Later, the 76th Food Inspection Decision, July 13, 1907, marked the appearance of certified colorants. In that year, only 16 of the 80 colorants offered to the food industry were considered safe. Between 1907 and 1914, the U.S. industry of certifiable colors grew consistently but was limited by a strong dependence on imported raw materials. With the start of World War I in 1914, the importation of raw materials for certified color production was interrupted and U.S. color industrials introduced new intermediates and other coal tar derivatives with purity established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. By 1937, approximately 270,000 kg of food certifiable colorants was produced. However, the approved colors suffered several limitations. They were oil insoluble, with a short range of hues and other inconvenient physical properties. Consequently, it was not rare that new certifiable colors were...

Expedition Results

The director of the Botanical Garden in Berlin-Dahlem, Ludwig Diels, sent him detailed suggestions as to which groups of plants to collect and what practical points to observe. The total plant collection comprised several thousand sheets with dried plants. Those from former Dutch New Guinea were sent to Leiden via Java and were used in several subsequent Dutch publications (see below). The rich material from the Huon Peninsula went to the Botanical Museum in Berlin-Dahlem where it was destroyed during World War II without anybody ever having studied the majority of these plants. This greatly saddened Mayr because he had invested an enormous amount of time and effort in these plant collections. No plants had been collected during the short stay in the Herzog Mountains, where Mayr was alone most of the time. Similar to Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, and Erwin Stresemann who had also traveled in the tropics as young men and never visited these areas again, Mayr's tripartite...

Pacific Islands

Join the WSSE, but was summoned back by Dr. Sanford. Although several status reports have been published while the expedition was underway (Murphy 1922, 1924, 1938 Chapman 1935), no general overview as to where and when birds were collected over the 20-year period ever appeared after finishing in Australia in the middle of World War II (but see the recent brief account by LeCroy 2005). The Introductions to the two bound volumes of individual papers on the Birds collected during the WSSE (No. 1-25 and No. 26-50) prepared and published by Mayr in 1933(n) and 1942(f), respectively, include brief comments on the expedition and provide very useful lists of the individual papers, of bird species and problems discussed. Mayr (1942e 12) summarized the accomplishments of the expedition in a few sentences and stated that a considerable part of his book was based on the magnificent material at hand. Rich collections were also made of mammals, reptiles, insects, mollusks and other groups. In...


In England, neurasthenia was described in Osler's The Principles and Practice of Medicine,(23) published in 1900. During the First World War it was a common diagnosis used for invaliding out many soldiers. In order to cope with its diagnosis, treatment, and disposal, the Army instituted a short course of training for medical officers who graduated with the title of 'neurasthenic expert'.(24)

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