Delayed Alternation Tasks

The spatial delayed alternation task (DA) is another task that involves short-term working memory and requires animals to alternate their responding between two spatially distinct locations. Like the DMTP task, it is very sensitive to damage of the mPFC. Indeed, deficits in delayed alternation in Wisconsin boxes (for monkeys) and in T mazes (for rats) were among the defining features of the prefrontal deficit described by Jacobsen in his classic primate studies in the 1930s,89,90 and replicated...

Working and Reference Memory

Working memory is involved in temporarily maintaining representations of previously experienced events or episodes, whereas reference memory contributes to the performance of well-learned responses in the presence of an appropriate discriminative stimulus.15 This component theory of memory serves to provide a conceptual framework for interpreting the dissociation in memory processes observed in both humans and animals following damage to the hippocampus (HPC) or its cholinergic innervation....

References

E., Bailey, J. R., Scallet, A. C., Ali, S. F., Slikker, W., Jr., and Paule, M. G., Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rhesus monkeys as measured by performance in a battery of cognitive function tests, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther, 245(1), 178, 1988. 2. Schulze, G. E., McMillan, D. E., Bailey, J. R., Scallet, A. C., Ali, S. F., Slikker, W., Jr., and Paule, M. G., Acute effects of marijuana smoke on complex operant behavior in rhesus monkeys, Life...

The NCTR Operant Test Battery OTB

Studies begun in the mid-1980s at the Food and Drug Administration's National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) incorporated a variety of behavioral tasks into an Operant Test Battery (OTB) for use with laboratory rhesus monkeys. (The term operant simply refers to the fact that subjects operate something in their environment, e.g., a response lever, in order to obtain reinforcers.) The initial studies were designed to assess the behavioral effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (the...

TA Conditioning and Assessment Methodology

The TA literature includes numerous variations of CTA induction methodologies. The preponderance of experimental taste aversions TAs have been induced by following the subject's ingestion of a distinctive CS flavor with administration of an emetic class UCS agent, usually via intraperitoneal injection. The basic CTA design utilized in our laboratory to produce TA learning in rats will be described for purposes of illustration. The methodologies can be extended to other species and modified as...