Radiographic and Other Studies

1. Renal ultrasound. Findings are rarely specific. In nephrotic syndrome, kidneys are typically enlarged with decreased corti-comedullary differentiation, because of interstitial fluid accumulation. Increased echogenicity is seen in any form of glomerulonephritis, even without nephrotic syndrome. Hydronephrosis may be detected in some forms of secondary FSGS that result from reflux nephropathy.

2. Chest x-ray. May be warranted in severe generalized edema or when respiratory symptoms are noted.

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