a. Hoods. Consider for younger, less mobile, or sleeping patients. Made of clear hard or soft plastic, hoods cover patient's head and upper body but allow access to rest of body. They are well tolerated by young infants. With a flow of 10-15 L/min, Fio2 of 80-90% may be achieved if hood is not disturbed.
b. Tents. Made of clear soft plastic but have limited usefulness as they may impede access to and visualization of patient, especially when condensation forms on inner surface.
Relief of Airway Obstruction. Pediatric airway is proportioned such that a small degree of swelling or inflammation may significantly obstruct air entry, and proportions of tongue and lymphoid tissue may lead to obstruction even in the absence of disease. When physical exam suggests upper airway obstruction and basic life support measures (eg, head-tilt, jaw-thrust maneuvers) fail to relieve obstruction, consider airway adjuncts for use under certain circumstances.
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