Pertinent Historical Information

1. If an infant, what type of formula is given, and how is it prepared?

2. What are child's voiding or stooling patterns? Constipation is present in patients with diabetes insipidus.

3. Have similar episodes of hypernatremia occurred in the past?

4. Is there a past medical history of head trauma, brain surgery, or sickle cell anemia or trait?

III. Differential Diagnosis. Considers pathophysiologic processes underlying the disorder: water and sodium deficits, water losses, and sodium excess.

A. Water and Sodium Deficits. Water losses are greater than sodium losses.

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