1. If an infant, what type of formula is given, and how is it prepared?
3. Have similar episodes of hypernatremia occurred in the past?
4. Is there a past medical history of head trauma, brain surgery, or sickle cell anemia or trait?
III. Differential Diagnosis. Considers pathophysiologic processes underlying the disorder: water and sodium deficits, water losses, and sodium excess.
A. Water and Sodium Deficits. Water losses are greater than sodium losses.
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