Differential Diagnosis

A. Upper Respiratory Conditions. Airway obstruction, croup, epiglottitis, retropharyngeal abscess, suffocation, strangulation, trauma, or tracheitis.

B. Lower Respiratory Conditions. Pneumonia, asthma, bronchioli-tis, foreign body aspiration, drowning, smoke inhalation, or pulmonary edema.

C. Infection. Sepsis or meningitis.

D. Cardiac Disorders. Congenital heart disease, pericarditis, or rhythm disturbances.

E. Shock. Hypovolemic shock from dehydration or hemorrhage, cardiogenic shock from myocardial dysfunction, or distributive shock from sepsis or anaphylaxis.

F. Neurologic Disorders. CNS infection, meningitis or encephalitis, head injury, or cerebrovascular event.

G. Trauma or Environmental Causes. Hypovolemia, hypothermia, hyperthermia, or submersion injury.

H. Metabolic Disorders. Hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, or hyper-kalemia.

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