Differential Diagnosis

A. UTI. Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder; pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys (see Chapter 91, Urinary Tract Infection, p. 424).

B. Urethritis. Predominantly an infection of sexually active individuals, usually observed in boys. Signs and symptoms include painful or burning urination and discharge from the urethral meatus. Causes may be gonococcal (Neisseria gonorrhea) and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), which is now more frequent in the United States. NGU may be due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and, less commonly, Trichomonas vaginalis or herpesvirus infection.

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