Eyes Perform funduscopic exam for retinal hemorrhages in cases

of suspected shaken-baby syndrome or abuse. Papilledema suggests increased ICP. Red eye in association with tearing or an enlarged or cloudy cornea suggests congenital glaucoma. Fluorescein staining of corneas demonstrates corneal abrasions. Eversion of the eyelids is important to rule out foreign body.

5. Ears. Check tympanic membranes for erythema, fullness, and decreased mobility, suggesting otitis media.

6. Nasopharynx. Vesicular lesions in the oropharynx indicate herpes gingivostomatitis or herpangina. Beefy red or bulging posterior pharynx associated with drooling and muffled cry suggests retropharyngeal abscess. Carefully inspect oropharynx for foreign body if infant winces when swallowing. In neonate, assess patency of nares to rule out choanal atresia.

7. Neck. Resistance to passive flexion of the neck suggests meningitis or subarachnoid bleeding. Positive Kernig and Brudzinski signs also indicate meningeal irritation but often are not present in neonates or young infants. Erythematous, tender neck mass indicates lymphadenitis or infected brachial cleft or thyroglossal duct cyst.

8. Chest. Prolonged expiratory phase with rhonchi and wheezing may be noted in infants with gastroesophageal reflux.

9. Abdomen. Distention, tenderness, or guarding suggests intraabdominal pathology. Erythematous, tender, nonreducible mass in inguinal region suggests incarcerated hernia.

10. Skin. Examine infant with all clothes removed so subtle bruises, burns, or bites are not missed. Any bruise is abnormal in an infant, and patterns of bruising must be defined in toddlers. Hemorrhagic rash suggests meningococcal infection. Local areas of redness, warmth, induration, and tenderness indicate cellulitis or underlying soft tissue infection.

11. Musculoskeletal system. How infant flexes or extends an extremity may signify possible trauma. Carefully examine all extremities for tenderness or a hair tourniquet.

12. Neurologic exam. Abnormalities of tone suggest meningitis, seizure, or head injury. Focal findings or gait disturbance also suggest an intracranial process.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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