Extrarenal losses

a. Respiratory, due to increases insensible water losses in intubated patients receiving dehumidified air or oxygen.

b. Cutaneous, due to fever or excessive sweating.

3. Inadequate intake of water. Hypodipsic essential hyperna-tremia, in which patients have persistent hypernatremia not explained by extracellular volume losses, absence of thirst, partial diabetes insipidus, and normal response to ADH. Many patients have cerebral lesions in the vicinity of the hypothalamus (eg, craniopharyngioma, teratoma). The hypodipsia is attributed to a decrement in angiotensin-II-mediated thirst.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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