1. Constipation. Rectal exam is diagnostic and often therapeutic.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux. May cause excessive crying, as well as frequent regurgitation or vomiting, failure to thrive, hiccups, episodes of stiffening or arching or head tilting associated with feedings (Sandifer syndrome), recurrent wheezing or pneumonia, stridor, and obstructive apnea.
3. Milk-protein allergy. Seen in a minority of colicky infants. Other clues to the diagnosis include vomiting, diarrhea, heme-positive or grossly bloody stools, flatulence, difficulty feeding, failure to thrive, family history of allergy, eczema, or eosinophilia.
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