Congenital Cysts

1. Branchial cleft cyst. Typically of second branchial cleft origin.

2. Pyriform cysts. Very rare and always found in the left neck; may be mistaken for branchial cleft cysts.

3. Thyroglossal duct cyst. Most common congenital neck mass; seen with a persistent thyroglossal duct, which is normally obliterated during fetal development. Typically, these midline lesions are diagnosed in children 2-10 years old.

F. Dermoid Cyst. May be found in the midline of the neck and mistaken for a thyroglossal duct cyst; contains sebaceous material, hair follicles, and connective tissues.

G. Cystic Hygroma. Benign, multiloculated, cystic, lymphatic malformation seen in 1 in 12,000 births. Majority of cases are diagnosed by age 3 years and usually the malformation grows as the child grows. Complications include infection, airway compromise, and extension into the mediastinum and chest. Other benign tumors include lipoma and hemangioma.

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