Patients with obstructive processes (eg, posterior urethral valves) have small, frequent voidings. Patients with urethral strictures or meatal stenosis have a decrease in the force of their urine stream.
E. Has there been any bleeding? Bleeding may be present after trauma or associated with infection or congenital anomalies. Excess calcium excretion and renal stones cause dysuria as well as hematuria.
F. What medication(s) does patient take? Some medications (eg, cyclophosphamide) may cause irritation to the urethra and painful urination.
G. Has there been any change in brand of soap, detergent, or fabric softener? Does patient take showers or baths? Certain soaps or cleansers can be associated with urethral irritation and pruritus. Bubble baths, for example, remove protective lipids from the urethra, causing irritation.
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