Pertinent Historical Information

1. Infants. Is there a history of parathyroid or other endocrine diseases? What is the gestational history? Pay particular attention to maternal illnesses (eg, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathy-roidism), medications, birth history, and gestational age. What type of formula or supplements is infant given?

2. Children. Is there a history of acute or chronic illnesses, medication use, or surgery? Ask about diet and sun exposure.

III. Differential Diagnosis. Causes of hypocalcemia in infants need to be distinguished from those in children. Neonatal hypocalcemia is classically divided into early (first 4 days of life) and late, which usually presents at 5-10 days of life. In children of all ages, abnormalities can be divided into those involving parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and binding or distribution of calcium.

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