Pertinent Historical Information

1. Infants. Is there a history of parathyroid or other endocrine diseases? What is the gestational history? Pay particular attention to maternal illnesses (eg, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathy-roidism), medications, birth history, and gestational age. What type of formula or supplements is infant given?

2. Children. Is there a history of acute or chronic illnesses, medication use, or surgery? Ask about diet and sun exposure.

III. Differential Diagnosis. Causes of hypocalcemia in infants need to be distinguished from those in children. Neonatal hypocalcemia is classically divided into early (first 4 days of life) and late, which usually presents at 5-10 days of life. In children of all ages, abnormalities can be divided into those involving parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and binding or distribution of calcium.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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