1. Ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram. See Chapter 91, Urinary Tract Infection, p. 427. Order ultrasound if congenital anomaly is suspected. Voiding film obtained during IV urography or retrograde urethrography is diagnostic of urethral strictures or stenosis. Diagnosis of posterior urethral valves is made by a voiding cystourethrogram.
2. X-ray of abdomen and pelvis. May diagnose renal calculi. Approximately 90% of stones are calcified, and diagnosis can be made by plain abdominal film alone.
3. CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. Stones that are small or radiolucent are often seen using a nonenhanced spiral CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis.
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