Radiographic and Other Studies

1. Chest x-ray. Examine for abnormal cardiac size (decreased in hypovolemic shock; increased in cardiac shock), presence or absence of pulmonary vasculature (increased or decreased blood flow to lungs), signs of interstitial lung disease, evidence of mediastinal mass, pneumothorax, foreign body ingestion, or bony abnormalities.

2. ECG. Abnormalities suggest presence of cardiac disease or abnormal cardiac rhythm.

3. Echocardiogram. Use to confirm cardiac disease when suspected or determine presence of cardiac disease in cases less certain.

4. Imaging studies of head. Consider CT scan, MRI scan, or ultrasonography of the head if neurologic disease is suspected.

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