Contents

Associate Editors xi

Contributors xiii

Preface xxiii

Common Abbreviations and Acronyms xxv

I. On Call Problems

1. Abdominal Distention 1

2. Abdominal Pain 6

3. Acidosis 13

4. Airway Devices 18

5. Alkalosis 23

6. Altered Mental Status 26

7. Anaphylactic Reaction 34

9. Apnea and Apparent Life-Threatening Event 44

10. Back Pain 48

11. Bradycardia 51

12. Cardiopulmonary Arrest 56

13. Chest Pain 61

14. Child Abuse: Physical 69

15. Child Abuse: Sexual 74

16. Coagulapathy 80

18. Constipation 89

20. Cyanosis 96

21. Diarrhea 102

22. Dysuria 110

23. Epistaxis 115

24. Eye Discharge (Conjunctivitis) and Swelling 120

25. Failure to Thrive 124

26. Feeding Problems 128

27. Fever 131

28. Fever of Unknown Origin 139

29. Foreign Body: Gastrointestinal Tract 143

30. Foreign Body: Respiratory Tract 147

31. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Lower Tract 150

32. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Upper Tract 155

33. Headache 160

34. Heart Murmurs and Heart Sound

Abnormalities 166

35. Hematuria 172

36. Hemoptysis 177

37. Hyperbilirubinemia, Direct (Conjugated) 180

38. Hyperbilirubinemia, Indirect (Unconjugated) 185

39. Hypercalcemia 189

40. Hyperglycemia 194

41. Hyperkalemia 196

42. Hypermagnesemia 201

43. Hypernatremia 203

44. Hyperphosphatemia 209

45. Hypertension 213

46. Hypocalcemia 218

47. Hypoglycemia 223

48. Hypokalemia 226

49. Hypomagnesemia 229

50. Hyponatremia 232

51. Hypophosphatemia 236

52. Hypotension 240

53. Hypothermia 245

54. Hypotonia 248

55. Inability to Void (Urinary Retention) 252

56. Increased Intracranial Pressure 255

57. Intravenous Access Problems 260

58. Irritability 262

59. Joint Swelling 268

60. Leg Pain 271

61. Lethargy 276

62. Leukocytosis 282

63. Leukopenia and Neutropenia 287

65. Macrocephaly 295

66. Metabolic Diseases 299

67. Nasogastric Tube Management 305

68. Neck Swelling and Masses 309

69. Nutrition in the Pediatric Patient 316

70. Pain Management 320

71. Pharyngitis 325

72. Phlebitis 330

73. Pneumothorax 332

74. Poisoning and Overdoses 337

75. Polyuria 350

76. Proteinuria 353

77. Rectal Prolapse 357

78. Renal Failure, Acute 360

79. Respiratory Distress 369

80. Scrotal Swelling 374

81. Sedation and Analgesia 377

82. Seizures, Febrile 384

83. Seizures, Nonfebrile 387

84. Stridor 393

85. Syncope 396

86. Tachycardia 401

87. Thrombocytopenia 408

88. Transfusion Reaction 412

89. Trauma and Injuries 415

90. Urinary Incontinence 421

91. Urinary Tract Infections 423

92. Vaginal Bleeding 429

93. Vaginal Discharge 432

94. Vomiting 435

95. Wheezing 441

II. Laboratory Tests and Their Interpretation 449

III. Bedside Procedures 488

1. Arterial Line Placement 488

2. Arterial Puncture 490

3. Bladder Catheterization 491

4. Chest Tube Insertion 492

5. Cricothyrotomy 495

6. Endotracheal Intubation (Oral and Nasal) 497

7. Gastrointestinal Tube Insertion 500

8. Gynecologic Evaluation 503

9. Heelstick (Capillary Blood Sampling) 505

10. Intraosseous Cannulation 505

11. Knee Arthrocentesis 507

12. Lumbar Puncture 509

13. Paracentesis 511

14. Percutaneous Central Venous Catheterization . . . .513

15. Percutaneous Venous Catheterization 517

16. Skin Biopsy 519

17. Splinting 520

18. Thoracentesis 527

19. Tympanocentesis 529

20. Umbilical Vein Catheterization 530

21. Venipuncture (Phlebotomy) 532

22. Wound Care and Suturing 533

IV. Fluids and Electrolytes 542

1. Maintenance Fluids and Electrolytes 542

2. Deficit Replacement 544

V. Blood Component Therapy 547

1. Blood Components and Their Uses in Pediatrics . .547

2. Transfusion Reactions 547

VI. Ventilator Management 551

1. Indications for Ventilatory Support 551

2. Ventilation Options and Classification 553

3. Ventilator Setup 555

4. Modification of Ventilator Settings 560

5. Special Modes of Ventilation 564

6. Equations 565

VII. Preoperative Management 567

1. Preoperative Assessment 567

2. Postoperative Care 578

VIII. Commonly Used Medications 580

1. Classes of Generic Drugs, Minerals, and Vitamins .580

2. Generic Drugs: Indications, Actions, Dosage, Supplied, and Notes 594

3. Minerals: Indications/Effects, RDA/Dosage, Signs/ Symptoms of Deficiency and Toxicity, and Notes . .740

4. Vitamins: Indications/Effects, RDA/Dosage, Signs/ Symptoms of Deficiency and Toxicity, and Notes . . .745

5. Tables 750

Appendices 757

A. Blood Cell Indices: Age-Specific 758

B. Blood Pressure Measurement Percentiles

(Girls and Boys): Age Specific 759

C. Body Surface Area 759

D. Childhood Immunization Schedule 759

E. Denver Developmental Assessment 762

F. Glasgow Coma Scale 765

G. Growth Charts (Girls and Boys) 766

H. Heart Rates: Age Specific 768

I. SBE Prophylaxis 768

J. Specimen Tubes for Phlebotomy 770

K. Temperature Conversion 770

L. Tetanus Prophylaxis 771

M. Weight Conversion 773

Index 775

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