Metabolic Causes

1. Disorders of metabolism of amino acids (tyrosinemia).

2. Disorders of lipid metabolism (Niemann-Pick, Gaucher, and Wolman diseases).

3. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (galactosemia, fruc-tosemia, type IV glycogenesis).

4. Endocrinopathies (hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism).

5. Urea cycle defects.

6. Neonatal hemochromatosis; characterized by acute hepatic failure in newborn period. Antioxidant therapy may ameliorate symptoms, but process is essentially fatal without liver transplantation. Etiology is unclear, but subsequent pregnancies may be affected.

7. Ultrastructural abnormalities, such as peroxisomal (or Zellweger syndrome) and mitochondrial disorders.

8. Bile acid disorders.

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