Radiographic and Other Studies

1. Chest x-ray. Allows for determination of pneumothorax, pneumonia, and size of cardiac silhouette. Enlarged cardiac silhouette may indicate tamponade or failure.

2. Measurement of CVP. If patient is poorly responsive to fluid therapy alone, therapy with inotropes or vasopressors may be necessary. If this occurs, placement of a central venous catheter should be considered. In addition to providing central access for fluid resuscitation, the catheter enables measurement of CVP, which will help to direct further therapy. If hypotension is refractory or continuous BP monitoring is needed, consider arterial line placement.

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