Oropharynx or Nasopharynx Postnasal drip from allergic or

infectious rhinosinusitis is a common cause of cough.

C. Larynx. Congenital abnormalities (eg, laryngotracheal cleft) or viral infections cause croupy cough.

D. Tracheobronchial Tree. Irritation of mucosal receptors or retention of secretions can result in cough.

1. Bronchospasm. Asthma is a frequent cause of cough that can be productive and paroxysmal.

2. Congenital abnormalities. Includes tracheoesophageal fistula, cysts, and vascular rings.

3. Bronchitis. Includes infectious or inflammatory irritation of mucosal receptors, as in asthma and cystic fibrosis.

4. Pneumonia. Includes viral, bacterial, and atypical pneumonia as well as typical and atypical mycobacteria. Pneumocystis pneumonia occurs in immunocompromised patients with respiratory distress, patients receiving chemotherapy, and those with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome or ciliary dyskinesia syndrome.

5. Aspiration syndromes. Patients with either swallowing dysfunction or gastroesophageal reflux can present with cough. Cough is minimal after the cough receptors are desensitized.

6. Inhaled irritants (eg, passive smoking). Other Causes

1. Slow recovery from viral lower respiratory tract infection or recurrent lower respiratory infection.

2. Congestive heart failure.

3. Pericardial effusion.

4. Interstitial lung disease: nonproductive cough with infectious (tuberculosis, histiocytosis, coccidioidomycosis) or inflammatory etiology (sarcoidosis).

Cause of Cough in Neonatal Period. As a mnemonic remember CRADLE: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory infection; Aspiration from tra-cheoesophageal fistula swallowing dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux; Dyskinesia of cilia; Lung, airway, vascular malformation; Edema, heart failure.

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