1. ABGs. Follow serial values to assess effects of treatment and identify need for intubation. Pulse oximetry is a valuable noninvasive tool to assess oxygenation. Measurement of end-tidal CO2 can also be a reliable noninvasive tool to assess adequacy of ventilation.
2. CBC. Leukocytosis or leukopenia may indicate sepsis. High hemoglobin and hematocrit values may indicate dehydration; thrombocytopenia is usually associated with severe sepsis or DIC, or both.
3. Electrolytes. Calculate the AG. In non-AG metabolic acidosis, evaluate K+ and Cl-. Look for evidence of renal failure.
4. Lactate. Increases in all forms of shock. Indicates anaerobic metabolism from inadequate tissue perfusion.
5. Glucose and ketones. Increases may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis.
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