Are any other serious or lifethreatening conditions present

ARF can be associated with hypotension, shock, hyperkalemia, acidosis, uremia, heart failure, and pulmonary edema.

C. What are patient's latest serum chemistry values? Is patient in renal failure? Are other electrolyte abnormalities present? ARF if a clinical syndrome in which a sudden deterioration in renal function results in inability of the kidneys to maintain fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. The ratio of BUN to creatinine and degree of creatinine elevation are helpful in identifying the presence and type of renal dysfunction. BUN-to-creatinine ratio > 20 often indicates a prerenal cause (see later discussion).The higher the creatinine value, the more likely it is that the patient has advanced renal damage.

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