Airway abnormalities or obstruction

a. Congenital. Choanal atresia, macroglossia, micrognathia (Pierre Robin sequence), laryngeal web, tracheal stenosis, vascular ring, tracheoesophageal fistula.

b. Infectious. Acute epiglottitis, croup, retropharyngeal abscess, laryngospasm.

c. Traumatic. Vocal cord injury, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum.

d. Other. Lymphoma, cystic hygroma, goiter, laryngeal hemangioma or neoplasm, foreign body, obesity.

3. Trauma. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, vocal cord injury.

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