a. Oral intake of sodium chloride tablets.
b. IV administration of sodium bicarbonate during CPR.
c. IV administration of hypertonic saline (3%).
d. Ingestion of seawater, especially in infants.
e. Improper mixing of infant formulas or enteral tube feedings.
f. Ineffective breast-feeding.
2. Mineralocorticoid or corticosteroid excess, in which hyper-natremia is mild and clinically unimportant.
a. Primary hyperaldosteronism.
b. Cushing syndrome.
c. Exogenous steroids.
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