Anatomic Causes

1. Hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus develops when there is obstruction of CSF reabsorption or flow (see Chapter 65, Macrocephaly, III, A, p. 295).

2. Hematoma. Traumatic brain injury or cerebral vascular accidents may produce collections of blood in any of four spaces within the skull.

a. Extra-axial.

b. Epidural.

c. Subdural.

d. Intraparenchymal.

3. Tumor. A mass can produce increased ICP directly or by obstructing CSF flow, producing hydrocephalus. Tumors may also cause hemorrhage.

4. Venous drainage obstruction. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, superior vena cava syndrome, or severe cor pulmonale can increase ICP.

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