Malnutrition

Chronic Nonspecific Diarrhea (Toddler's Diarrhea). Typically occurs in children aged 1-3 years. Children appear healthy and continue to grow and develop normally. Excessive fluid intake and an unbalanced diet that consists mostly of low-residue, high-carbohydrate, and low-fat foods may play a role. F. Lactose Intolerance. Frequent cause of chronic diarrhea in pediatric patients. Often associated with bloating and flatulence. Milk or milk products exacerbate the diarrhea. Congenital lactase...

Malabsorption

Leads to fat malabsorption and steatorrhea, with large, greasy, foul-smelling stools growth failure and deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins. Causes include cystic fibrosis, Schwachman syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis. 2. Bacterial overgrowth. Consider in postsurgical patients. Leads to bile salt deconjugation, which typically promotes watery diarrhea. 3. Celiac disease. Allergic response to gluten, characterized by proximal small bowel mucosal damage and subsequent...

Voiding cystourethrogram VCUG

Obtain if central lesion suspected. 4. Urinary concentrating ability (water deprivation test). In young children, this test should be completed in-hospital to allow for monitoring of body weight and electrolytes (exclude hypernatremia). Impose water restriction while assessing urine osmolality, body weight, and vital signs. Terminate test if tachycardia or hypotension develops. In these children, if administration of nasal desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)causes an increase in urine...

Pertinent Historical Information

Is there a history of witnessed or suspected trauma 3. What is the probability of poisoning, ingestion, or overdose 4. What are the associated symptoms (eg, headache, seizures, diplopia, weakness, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain) 5. Is there a contributing past medical history (eg, seizure disorder, brain tumor, ventricular shunt, sickle cell disease, metabolic disorder, diabetes, liver disease, renal failure) III. Differential Diagnosis. Altered mental status may have structural,...

Radiographic and Other Studies

Required in any febrile neonate (0-2 months) or any older infant or child with unexplained fever and mental status alteration to evaluate for meningitis. 2. Skeletal survey. Required in cases of suspected nonacciden-tal injury or to confirm a fracture suspected during palpation of a tender extremity. 3. CT scan of head. Required if there is any suspicion of trauma or abuse or increased ICP, or in the presence of focal neurologic signs, seizures, retinal hemorrhages, or...

Anemia With Hemodynamic Compromise or Complications

If patient is hemodynamically unstable, transfuse immediately. 2. If evidence of acute bleeding, stop bleeding and obtain adequate IV access (anticipating need for transfusion). B. Anemia Without Hemodynamic Compromise or Complications. Proceed with workup in an orderly fashion. Laboratory testing is not always diagnostic, and bone marrow biopsy may be indicated. C. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Alter patient's diet as indicated to prevent recurrence or persistence. Sample stools for occult blood,...

Physical Exam Key Points

Does child appear acutely ill Does child demonstrate pallor and lethargy, indicating significant blood loss 2. Vital signs. Tachycardia is the most sensitive indicator of severe bleeding. A positive orthostatic change is a decrease in systolic BP of 10 mm Hg or an increase of 20 beats min in pulse, indicating a 10-20 loss of intravascular fluid volume. Hypotension is a late finding and demands immediate resuscitation with fluids (compatible blood if available). 3. Abdomen....

Plan

Evaluate height, weight, weight-for-height, vital signs, and signs of dehydration. If patient is dehydrated or severely malnourished, hospital admission may be advisable. Goals of nutrition support must be delineated. Calculate child's energy needs. Can patient be enterally fed If so, with what solids or formula products, and by which route B. Enteral Nutrition. Can be delivered by mouth nasogastric, naso-duodenal, or nasojejunal tube or gastric or jejunal tube. 1. Infant...

What precipitates pain Are there associated symptoms

Chest pain precipitated by exercise should be taken seriously (suggesting cardiac disease or, more commonly, exercise-induced asthma). History of trauma, rough play, or choking on a foreign body may be relevant. Chest pain associated with syncope or palpitations is more significant and may also relate to cardiac disease. History of fever suggests an infectious process (eg, pneumonia, myocarditis). C. What is patient's past medical and family history Past medical history may reveal asthma that...

Immediate Questions

What are the vital signs Because infants are diaphragmatic breathers, distention may impair respiratory function and cause tachypnea. Massive distention can compromise cardiac output, resulting in hypotension and tachycardia. Fever suggests infection, such as peritonitis or pneumonia, which can cause distention from adynamic ileus. B. Is abdomen usually distended Abdominal distention resulting from obesity and fecal retention occurs gradually, whereas that from intestinal obstruction is more...

Is there a history of polyuria polydipsia or excessive thirst

Diabetes insipidus or mellitus may cause hypernatremia if patient has no access to, or poor intake of, fluids, especially water. E. Is there a disorder of osmoregulation Central diabetes insipidus is caused by undetectable or low concentrations of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Patients have sudden onset of polyuria and a predilection for cold water. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus has variable onset and is due to insensitivity of the renal collecting duct to ADH. Hypodipsic essential...

Migraine Management

Can be managed with symptomatic medication use (ie, when headache occurs, take an analgesic medication). These medications include acetaminophen, aspirin, NSAIDs, and a variety of combination medications (containing butalbital, caffeine, and codeine), such as Midrin and Fioricet. Triptans (eg, sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, and naratriptan) can be used for infrequent headaches occurring less than once per week. Triptan medications are effective in treating...

Hypoglycemia

A previously healthy 3-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department in the early morning after his parents found him difficult to arouse. The family had been traveling and the child had a prolonged fast. His blood glucose level is 28 mg dL. A. What constitutes a low serum glucose level in a patient of this age Hypoglycemia in children is defined as follows. 1. Term neonate. Serum glucose < 50-60 mg dL. 2. Infants and young children. Serum glucose < 45-60 mg dL. 3. Older...

EGI disorders

Rectal exam is diagnostic and often therapeutic. 2. Gastroesophageal reflux. May cause excessive crying, as well as frequent regurgitation or vomiting, failure to thrive, hiccups, episodes of stiffening or arching or head tilting associated with feedings (Sandifer syndrome), recurrent wheezing or pneumonia, stridor, and obstructive apnea. 3. Milk-protein allergy. Seen in a minority of colicky infants. Other clues to the diagnosis include vomiting, diarrhea, heme-positive or...

Constipation

A 4-year-old boy has infrequent and painful bowel movements. A. What is patient's usual pattern of stooling Normal frequency varies from 4 times daily in infants to once every 3 days in children. B. Age at onset of symptoms Consider congenital anomalies, obstruction, or chronic diseases if constipation has been present since infancy. Functional constipation starts in toddler or preschool years. C. Consistency and size of stool Hard, large stool that is painful to pass is consistent...

Postinfectious nephritis streptococcal or other causes

Normal C3 occurs with viral upper respiratory infection. 3. Henoch-Schonlein nephritis. Systemic findings include rash, abdominal pain, and joint problems. 4. Chronic nephritis. Focal segmental, membranous, or membranoproliferative disease usually causes significant proteinuria. 5. Lupus nephritis. Low C3 other systems may be affected. 6. Vasculitis. Scleroderma, Wegener granulomatosis, or pol-yarteritis nodosa.

Differential Diagnosis

It is important to exclude this diagnosis in infants. Condition is most commonly seen in preterm infants with rectal bleeding, feeding intolerance, and systemic instability, but 10 of cases occur in full-term infants. Antenatal exposure to maternal cocaine and formula feeding are risk factors. B. Obstructive Lesions. Include Hirschsprung disease, intestinal volvulus and malrotation, and ileocolic intussusception. Pain or irritability can indicate ischemia. Children...

Miscellaneous Causes Pain Related to Underlying Diseases

Children with vasoocclusive crisis may have pain that localizes to the chest or produces acute chest syndrome. 2. Marfan syndrome. May result in chest pain and fatal dissection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. 3. Herpes zoster infection. Shingles may produce severe chest pain that precedes the classic vesicular rash by several days or occurs simultaneously. 4. Coxsackievirus infection. This common viral infection may lead, rarely, to pleurodynia with paroxysms of sharp pain...

Laboratory Data

Obtain both studies if UTI is suspected (see Chapter 91, Urinary Tract Infection, p. 425). Presence of leukocytes, leukocyte esterase, nitrites, erythro-cytes, or bacteria on urinalysis is highly indicative of UTI. Erythrocytes alone can be seen with renal calculi. Bacteria or yeast alone may be detected in urine specimens due contamination by normal flora of vagina and urethra. 2. CBC with differential and blood culture. Order in all patients who are ill-appearing...

Oropharynx or Nasopharynx Postnasal drip from allergic or

Infectious rhinosinusitis is a common cause of cough. C. Larynx. Congenital abnormalities (eg, laryngotracheal cleft) or viral infections cause croupy cough. D. Tracheobronchial Tree. Irritation of mucosal receptors or retention of secretions can result in cough. 1. Bronchospasm. Asthma is a frequent cause of cough that can be productive and paroxysmal. 2. Congenital abnormalities. Includes tracheoesophageal fistula, cysts, and vascular rings. 3. Bronchitis. Includes infectious or inflammatory...

Metaiodobenzylguanidine MIBG radionuclide scan If

Pheochromocytoma is strongly suspected, obtain this study in tandem with MRI scan of abdomen. ECG. Quick and easy way to evaluate heart for left ventricular hypertrophy. Ambulatory BP monitoring. Best way to establish the diagnosis of office hypertension. School nurses are the poor person's ambulatory BP monitors. A. Hypertensive Emergency. Hypertension associated with signs of end-organ damage (pulmonary edema, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral bleeding, or cerebral infarction) requires...

Physical Exam Key Points 1 General features of exam

Most important purpose of exam is to reassure child that he or she is or will be physically all right. Other purposes are to document physical or forensic findings produced by sexual contact, screen for sexually transmitted infections, and look for physical findings indicative of other medical conditions. Most physical exams of sexually abused children will not yield any specific physical findings for sexual contact. b. Preparation. Exam should not require physical force. It is...

Hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS

Alport syndrome (hearing loss) thin membrane disease (little proteinuria). Hematuria From Kidneys That Is Not Glomerular 1. Interstitial disease (usually with proteinuria). Analgesic nephropathy, toxins (heavy metal, drugs) eosinophils may be present in urine. 2. Infections (pyelonephritis, tuberculosis). Always associated with pyuria. 3. Malformations. Cystic disease (family history) obstructive disease (can occur with minimal trauma) vascular problem (hemangioma,...

Urethritis

Suspect when dysuria, pyuria, but no bacteriuria, is present. Treatment with azithromycin, 1 g in a single dose, or doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily for 7 days, is effective. Alternative treatments erythromycin, 500 mg 4 times daily for 7 days, or ofloxacin, 300 mg twice daily for 7 days. Patient's sexual partner should also be evaluated and treated. Doxycycline should not be used in children younger than 9 years of age. Ofloxacin should be used with caution in those...

Causes of Neutropenia in Children

Most common cause of transient neutropenia in childhood typically lasts 3 days to 1 week. Causes include hepatitis A and B, parvovirus, respiratory syncytial, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, HIV, influenza A and B, and varicella viruses. 2. Benign ethnic neutropenia. Racial variation is seen in normal WBC counts. For children aged 2 weeks to 1 year, the lower limit of normal is 1000 mm3 for white infants and 500 mm3 for black infants. Similarly, for white and black children older than 1...

Vaginitis or Vulvitis

Common cause of vaginitis in prepubertal girls. Presents with serous discharge, marked erythema and irritation of the vulvar area, and discomfort on walking and urination. 2. Candida. Can also cause vaginitis but typically causes intense pruritus. Labia may be pale or erythematous with satellite lesions. Vaginal discharge, if present, is usually thick and adherent, with white curds. 3. Other causes. In sexually active adolescents, the most common causes include bacterial...