Visual Memory Improvement Techniques
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The most prominent impairment is observed on tests of fine motor control (finger tapping, grooved pegboard), rapid sequential problem solving (trail-making A and B, digit symbol), visuospatial problem solving (block design), spontaneity (verbal fluency), and visual memory (visual reproduction). In contrast, naming and vocabulary skills are largely preserved even in the most advanced cases. This pattern has been regarded as consistent with the clinical picture of a 'subcortical dementia'.
Children and adolescents may manifest all the symptoms characteristic of adult psychotic disorder, but great care must be taken in establishing the presence of delusions and hallucinations, since a number of other phenomena can easily be confused with them. In particular hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid true hallucinations occurring when falling asleep) and hypnopompic hallucinations (vivid true hallucinations occurring on waking up) are normal phenomena. Care also needs to be taken not to mistake eidetic imagery, imaginary companions, elaborated fantasies, perceptual illusions, seizure phenomena, drug-induced experiences, subcultural beliefs, and hallucinations accompanying toxic encephalopathies, for psychotic delusions and hallucinations.
Patient A presented with choreiform and stereotypic involuntary movements of her upper limbs, poor coordination and clumsiness of gait. She had classic lingual dystonia, expelling food from her mouth, with some dysfluency and tongue clicks. She had mild cognitive changes, specifically with visual memory. The MDT aimed to identify the problems for Patient A and what could be done though rehabilitation to reduce or compensate for these.
In Drosophila, MBs seem especially involved in olfactory learning and memory and not in visual learning (Wolf et al. 1998). Flies can remember that a visual pattern represents a danger because this cue has been associated with heat (for review, see Heisenberg et al. 2001). Recently, using a variety of neurogenetic tools, Liu et al. (2006) identified a central brain structure, the fan-shaped body (FB), as being involved in visual memory (Fig. 4). After showing that the adenylate-cyclase Rut was required for the association between the visual pattern and the reinforcer, they restored a normal visual memory capacity in the rut mutant by specifically expressing the rut gene in the upper stratum of the FB (called the F5 neurons). Interestingly, F5 neurons are required to learn about the horizontal elevation of a cue, whereas the ability to learn about the contour orientation of the pattern involves FB F1 neurons (a lower horizontal stratum in FB). These results suggest that memories of two...
Sometimes inevitable time constraints make it difficult to justify giving whole memory batteries. Often, just a few key subtests are selected, or other individual tests may be given. For example, to gauge verbal learning the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test is well researched, (20) a well-researched test of visual memory is the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (2 22) and a useful forced-choice recognition tests for words and faces is the Recognition Memory Test.(23) If the ability of the patient to recall details of his or her past life is an issue, the Autobiographical Memory Interview can be used. (24
Albert Hofmann, who drew international attention to an accidental ingestion of the drug, classically describes the effects of ingesting LSD. (17) The characteristic LSD trip comprises autonomic arousal, marked mydriasis, and progressive modulations of sensory, more often visual, imagery, which appear to be generated both from external objects and distortions of eidetic imagery. Ordinarily benign objects may take on new emotional meanings. Geometric imagery may rise and fall before one's eyes. A prevalent feeling one experiences is a sense of helplessness to control one's streaming images and emotions, hence the hippie advice of 'going with the flow'. The loss of cognitive, perceptual, and affective control for some users leads to panic, which in turn results in the so-called 'bad trip.' As these effects decline, they may be replaced with a sense of oceanic well being or residual paranoia.
Another type of delay task used to assess working memory in monkeys is the delayed matching-to-sample task.14 Whereas the delayed response task assesses memory for spatial location, the delayed matching-to-sample task assesses short-term visual memory without a positional component. This task can be performed in a WGTA or as an automated task15 as described above for the delayed response task. In the delayed matching-to-sample task performed in the WGTA, the animal is presented with a stimulus (ex a blue cover located in a central position between the two food wells) at the start of each trial. This serves as the cue for the subsequent match. A delay is imposed and then the animal is presented with the stimulus tray and allowed to displace the blue cover from the food well (match) or a cover of another color.
Include age less than 3 years, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, and cranial radiation (Phipps et al. 2000). The impact of TBI on the neurocognitive impairment remains controversial (Simms et al. 1988 Kramer et al. 1992 Phipps et al. 1995 Phipps et al. 2000). Notteghem et al. (2003) recently reviewed the neuropsychological outcomes of 46 high-risk neuroblastoma patients with a mean follow-up of 9.1 years. Survivors of neuroblas-toma had an overall performance and skills in the normal range however, patients who were younger than 3 years when they received the treatment had more visuospatial difficulties and a worse visual memory. Furthermore, hearing loss due to cisplatin was associated with defects in verbal performance (Notteghem et al. 2003).
Measures of nonverbal learning have only rarely been used in the assessment of nicotinic drug effects. Measures of memory for spatial location have shown some positive effects in a study of the nicotinic agonist ABT-418 in Alzheimer's disease patients. Nonverbal serial learning was used in studies of the nicotinic agonist mecamylamine utilizing the repeated acquisition task,7076 in which subjects learn a sequence (chain) of button pushes on a key pad or button box. The subject learns a sequence prior to the beginning of the experiment and is periodically asked to reproduce that chain or sequence after drug administration. In addition, during the experiment, the subject is periodically asked to learn a new chain of button pushes. This enables the assessment of both long-term memory and retrieval as well as the acquisition of new nonverbal information and shape of the acquisition curve. Mecamylamine not only produces an increase in errors of acquisition of new information on this task...
Spatial cognition is the mental manipulation of spatial information, and this requires visual memory and egocentric representation. Oliver Sacks (1990) describes parkinsonian patients who walk on a tilt but perceive their own body and the environment to be perfectly upright. It was shown some thirty years ago by Bowen and colleagues that PD patients show deficits in judging the visual vertical and horizontal, and indeed, advanced PD patients do demonstrate very exaggerated bent postures. However, it has not been established whether the problem is due to visual impairment, to a distorted body centered coordinate system, to a visual working memory deficit, or all of the above. In a simple experimental paradigm of visuo-spatial ability, patients are asked to judge the orientation of lines (Benton). This test is very sensitive to PD however it may depend on primary visual dysfunction of orientation selective visual neurons.
Perception refers to the further processing of sensory information, providing a symbolic concept of what is happening in the external world. Usually, perception overrides sensation, so that we are aware of an external event or object rather than the fact that we are receiving a sensation. In object vision, the image is segmented into background and foreground and the impressions are fused into shapes and objects. The conscious appreciation of the object involves reception by the primary visual cortex, processing in the visual cortex, transfer to visual association areas and links with visual memory stores. In addition, the focusing of attention is necessary for awareness to occur. If the primary visual cortex is destroyed or isolated (even though it may be activated), conscious awareness does not occur. This is not to deny the occurrence of blindsight (a meaningful response to the visual stimulus, even though the patient denies the awareness of the stimulus). This illustrates the...
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