Vertical Deviations Hypertropia and Hypotropia

Like A pattern and V pattern deviations, vertical deviations are also typically caused by anomalies in the pattern of nerve supply to the rectus and oblique muscles. Vertical deviations are usually associated with esotropia or exotropia, for example in infantile strabismus. Primary oblique muscle dysfunction and dissociated vertical deviation are common in this setting.

Primary oblique muscle dysfunction is characterized by upward vertical deviation of the adducting eye during horizontal eye movements.

Dissociated vertical deviation is alternating upward deviation of the eyes. The respective non-fixating eye or the eye occluded in the cover test will be elevated.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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