Retinal vascular proliferation can occur in retinal ischemia in disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy in preterm infants, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, and sickle-cell retinopathy. Growth of this retinal neovascularization into the vitreous chamber usually occurs only where vitreous detachment is absent or partial because these proliferations require a substrate to grow on. Preretinal proliferations often lead to vitreous hemorrhage.
Fibrotic changes produce traction of the retina resulting in a tractional retinal detachment.
Increased postoperative inflammation in the anterior segment can progress through the hyaloid canal to the posterior pole of the eye and a cystoid macular edema can develop. This complication occurs particularly frequently following cataract surgery in which the posterior lens capsule was opened with partial loss of vitreous body. (Hruby-Irvine-Gass syndrome is the development of cystoid macular edema following intracapsular cataract extraction with incarceration of the vitreous body in the wound).
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