Orbital Surgery

Access to the orbital cavity is gained primarily through an anterior approach (transconjunctival or transpalpebral approaches yield good cosmetic results) or through a lateral approach. The lateral Krönlein approach provides better intraoperative exposure. Transantral, transfrontal, transcranial, and transnasal orbitotomies are used less frequently.

Orbital exenteration is indicated with advanced malignant tumors. This involves removal of the entire contents of the orbital cavity including the eyelids.

16 Optics and Refractive Errors

Christoph W. Spraul and Gerhard K. Lang

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Discarding Negative Habits

Discarding Negative Habits

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