Inflammations are the most clinically significant scleral changes encountered in ophthalmologic practice. They more often involve the anterior sclera (epis-cleritis and anterior scleritis) than the posterior sclera (posterior scleritis).
Classification: Forms of scleral inflammation are differentiated as follows:
❖ Location: anterior or posterior, i.e., anterior or posterior to the equator of the globe.
- Superficial (episcleritis).
- Diffuse (usually scleritis).
- Circumscribed or segmental (episcleritis).
- Nodular, with formation of small mobile nodules (scleritis and epis-cleritis).
Posterior staphyloma in a highly myopic eye. -
Fig. 6.1 a Ophthalmologic image of posterior staphyloma of the sclera.
a b Ultrasound image showing the posterior scleral bulge and oblique course of the optic nerve through the sclera.
- Necrotizing (scleritis only).
- Non-necrotizing (scleritis only).
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