Inflammations

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Inflammations are the most clinically significant scleral changes encountered in ophthalmologic practice. They more often involve the anterior sclera (epis-cleritis and anterior scleritis) than the posterior sclera (posterior scleritis).

Classification: Forms of scleral inflammation are differentiated as follows:

❖ Location: anterior or posterior, i.e., anterior or posterior to the equator of the globe.

- Superficial (episcleritis).

- Diffuse (usually scleritis).

- Circumscribed or segmental (episcleritis).

- Nodular, with formation of small mobile nodules (scleritis and epis-cleritis).

Posterior staphyloma in a highly myopic eye. -

Fig. 6.1 a Ophthalmologic image of posterior staphyloma of the sclera.

a b Ultrasound image showing the posterior scleral bulge and oblique course of the optic nerve through the sclera.

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- Necrotizing (scleritis only).

- Non-necrotizing (scleritis only).

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