A complete history includes four aspects:

1. Family history. Many eye disorders are hereditary or of higher incidence in members of the same family. Examples include refractive errors, strabismus, cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and retinal dystrophy.

2. Medical history. As ocular changes may be related to systemic disorders, this possibility must be explored. Conditions affecting the eyes include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, infectious diseases, rheumatic disorders, skin diseases, and surgery. Eye disorders such as corticosteroid-induced glaucoma, corticosteroid-induced cataract, and chloroquine-induced maculopathy can occur as a result of treatment with medications such as steroids, chloroquine, Amiodarone, Myambutol, or chlorpromazine (see table in Appendix).

3. Ophthalmic history. The examiner should inquire about corrective lenses, strabismus or amblyopia, posttraumatic conditions, and surgery or eye inflammation.

Fig. 1.3 From left to right: Foreign body needle, glass spatula, and Desmarres eyelid retractor.

4 1 The Ophthalmic Examination

4. Current history. What symptoms does the patient present with? Does the patient have impaired vision, pain, redness of the eye, or double vision? When did these symptoms occur? Are injuries or associated generalized symptoms present?

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