Examination Methods

Cataracts: Retroillumination of the lens (Bruckner's test) is the quickest preliminary examination method for lens opacities (Cataracts, see section 7.4). Under a light source or ophthalmoscope (set to 10 diopters), opacities will appear black in the red pupil (Fig. 7.5). The lens can be examined in greater detail and in three dimensions under focal illumination with a slit lamp with the pupil maximally dilated. The extent, type, location, and density of opacities and their relation to the visual axis may be evaluated. Mature lens opaci-

ties may be diagnosed with the unaided eye by the presence of a white pupil (leukocoria).

H Where the fundus is not visible in the presence of a mature lens opacity, ultrasound studies (one-dimensional A-scan and two-dimensional B-scan studies) are indicated to exclude involvement of the deeper structures of the eye.

Iridodonesis and phacodonesis: Tremulous motion of the iris and lens observed during slit-lamp examination suggests subluxation of the lens (see p. 195).

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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