The basic equipment for the ophthalmic examination includes the following instruments:
❖ Direct ophthalmoscope for examining the fundus (Fig. 1.1).
❖ Focused light (Fig. 1.1) for examining the reaction of the pupil and the anterior chamber.
❖ Aspheric lens (Fig. 1.1) for examining the anterior chamber.
❖ Eye chart for testing visual acuity at a distance of 5 meters (20 feet) (Fig. 1.2).
— Basic diagnostic instruments for the fundus, pupil, and anterior chamber. -
Fig. 1.1 From left to right: direct ophthalmoscope, aspheric lens, and focused light.
❖ Binocular loupes for removing corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies.
❖ Desmarres eyelid retractor and glass rod or sterile cotton swab for eyelid eversion (Fig. 1.3).
Foreign-body needle for removing superficial corneal foreign bodies (Fig. 1.3). Recommended medications:
❖ Topical anesthetic (such as oxybuprocaine 0.4% eyedrops) to provide local anesthesia during removal of conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies and superficial anesthesia prior to flushing the conjunctival sac in chemical injuries.
❖ Sterile buffer solution for primary treatment of chemical injuries.
❖ Antibiotic eyedrops for first aid treatment of injuries, sterile eye compresses, and a 1 cm adhesive bandage for protective bandaging.
U An ophthalmologist should be consulted following any emergency treatment of eye injuries.
— Basic diagnostic equipment for removing corneal foreign bodies and eyelid — eversion.
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