The basic equipment for the ophthalmic examination includes the following instruments:

❖ Direct ophthalmoscope for examining the fundus (Fig. 1.1).

❖ Focused light (Fig. 1.1) for examining the reaction of the pupil and the anterior chamber.

❖ Aspheric lens (Fig. 1.1) for examining the anterior chamber.

❖ Eye chart for testing visual acuity at a distance of 5 meters (20 feet) (Fig. 1.2).

— Basic diagnostic instruments for the fundus, pupil, and anterior chamber. -

Fig. 1.1 From left to right: direct ophthalmoscope, aspheric lens, and focused light.

2 1 The Ophthalmic Examination Eye charts for testing visual acuity at a distance of 5 meters.
Fig. 1.2 From left to right: Snellen letter chart, Arabic number chart, E game, Landolt broken rings, children's pictograph.

❖ Binocular loupes for removing corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies.

❖ Desmarres eyelid retractor and glass rod or sterile cotton swab for eyelid eversion (Fig. 1.3).

Foreign-body needle for removing superficial corneal foreign bodies (Fig. 1.3). Recommended medications:

❖ Topical anesthetic (such as oxybuprocaine 0.4% eyedrops) to provide local anesthesia during removal of conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies and superficial anesthesia prior to flushing the conjunctival sac in chemical injuries.

❖ Sterile buffer solution for primary treatment of chemical injuries.

❖ Antibiotic eyedrops for first aid treatment of injuries, sterile eye compresses, and a 1 cm adhesive bandage for protective bandaging.

U An ophthalmologist should be consulted following any emergency treatment of eye injuries.

— Basic diagnostic equipment for removing corneal foreign bodies and eyelid — eversion.

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