Color Vision

Color vision defects may be congenital (especially in men as they are inherited and X-linked recessive) or acquired, for example in macular disorders such as Stargardt's disease. Qualitative red-green vision defects are evaluated with pseudoisochromatic plates such as the Ishihara or Stilling-Velhagen plates. They contain numerals or letters composed of small color dots surrounded by confusion colors (Fig. 12.10) that patients with color vision defects cannot read. The Farnsworth-Munsell tests (Fig. 12.11) can detect blue-yellow color vision defects.

U Pseudoisochromatic plates contain numerals that patients with color vision defects cannot read. In the Farnsworth-Munsell test, patients with a color vision defect cannot sort markers with different hues (according to the colors of the rainbow) in the right order.

The Nagel anomaloscope permits quantitative evaluation of color vision defects. The test plate consists of a lower yellow half whose brightness can be adjusted, and an upper half that the patient tries to match to the lower yellow color by mixing red and green. The anomaly ratio is calculated from the final adjustment. Green-blind patients will use too much green, and red-blind patients too much red when mixing the colors.

Perimetry

— Ishihara plates for diagnosing red-green vision defects.

— Ishihara plates for diagnosing red-green vision defects.

Fig. 12.10 Patients with normal color vision will recognize the number 26 on the left and 42 on the right.

Farnsworth-Munsell test of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects. -

Fig. 12.11 The patient must sort markers of various hues in the right order according to the colors of the rainbow.

Farnsworth-Munsell test of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects. -

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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