Prerequisites for effective prevention of severe visual handicap in premature children are adequate screening and correct interpretation of the findings. National evidence-based guidelines have been developed from multicenter studies. Because of increasing knowledge with the natural course of the disease and the anatomical and functional outcome with actual treatment regimes, new treatment recommendations have recently evolved that eventually may modify actual guidelines. Because of late sequelae such as ametropia, amblyopia, strabismus, secondary glaucoma, and secondary retinal detachment, life-long ophthalmological examinations are mandatory.

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