Choroidal osteoma is a benign choroidal tumor that is probably congenital.Although it has been recognized in infancy, it may not be diagnosed clinically until young adulthood [13, 29]. It is
Fig. 8.18. Choroidal osteoma surrounding the optic disc
Fig. 8.18. Choroidal osteoma surrounding the optic disc more common in females. It consists of a plaque of mature bone that generally occurs adjacent to the optic disc (Fig. 8.18). It generally shows slow enlargement and choroidal neovascularization with subretinal hemorrhage as a frequent complication. The pathogenesis is unknown. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels are normal.
Uveal nevus is a flat or minimally elevated, variably pigmented tumor that may occur in the iris (Fig. 8.19) or in the choroid (Fig. 8.20).Although it is most likely congenital, it is usually asymptomatic and not usually recognized until later in life. Although most uveal nevi are stationary and nonprogressive, malignant transformation into melanoma can occur in rare instances .
An important variant of iris nevus is the presence of bilateral multiple, slightly elevated melanocytic lesions of the iris, known as Lisch nodules. These lesions become clinically apparent at about age 5 years and are often the first sign of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromato-sis.
Fig. 8.19 a, b. Iris freckles and nevi. a Flat iris freckles on iris surface. b Slightly thickened iris nevus distorting the iris stroma and causing corectopia
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