Viscotoxins

The viscotoxins consist of a group of basic polypeptides with a molecular weight of about 5 kDa and were isolated first by Winterfeld and co-workers (1948, a, b, 1956)

Table 2 Apoptotic changes and chromosomal affections in lymphocytes treated with VA-E.

Table 2 Apoptotic changes and chromosomal affections in lymphocytes treated with VA-E.

Human lymphocytes were incubated with ML III-rich VA-E produced from mistletoe grown on fir trees (Helixor A and VaAR) at final concentrations of 100 ^g/ml, and ML III at 10 ng/ml. VaAR is an experimental, non-fermented aqueous plant extract produced by the manufacturer Helixor using a new preparation method. Expression of mitochondrial membrane protein Apo2.7 was analyzed by flow cytometry as described (B├╝ssing et al., 1998a). Similar results were obtained using Annexin-V and the DNA intercalating dye propidium iodide (data not shown). For analysis of C-anaphases and telomeric associations, a minimum of 72 to a maximum of 100 Giemsa-stained metaphases were examined by light microscopy as described previously (Multani et al., 1996).

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