H

r1 E

Table 1 continued

Class of compounds

Individual compounds

References

Phenylpro-panoids

Caffeic acid, Sinapic acid, Ferulic acid, Protecatechic acid, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid, Anisic acid and -Gentisic acid.

Coniferyl-4 '-0[apiosyl( l-»2)]glucoside, Syringin (= Syringoside, Syringenin-4 '-O-glucoside), Syrin-genin-4'-0-[apiosyl(l—>2)]glucoside; the lignans syringaresinol and its glucoside Syringaresinol-4,4'-O-glucoside (= Eleutheroide E)

Fukunaga et al. (1987) Wagner et al. (1984, 1986)

Triterpenes

/8-Amyrin (a-Amyrin), /3-Amyrin-acetate, Betulinic acid, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid

Fukunaga et al. (1987) Wagner et al. (1986)

Phytosterol

/3-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol and their respective glucosides (1970)

Ohta and Yagashita

Alkaloids

Alkaloids have been repeatedly recorded, but no definite structure has yet been given

Khwaja et al. (1981)

Cyclic peptide

Viscumamide (cyclo(Leu-Ile-Leu-Ile-Leu) from V! album ssp. coloratum

Okumara and Sakurai (1973)

Cyclitols

Mannitol, myo-Inositol, Quebrachitol, Pinitol, Viscumitol (myo-Inositol-dimethylether)

Richter (1992) Richter and Popp (1992)

Polysaccharides

Stems and leaves contain mainly methylester of 1—>a4 Galacturonic acid. Berries contain Rhamnogalacturonanes as basic structures to which individual branched (lj8->6)-D-galactan chains are linked via 0-4 of rhamnose while arabinosyl residues or complex arabinan side chains are linked via 0-3 of galactose units.

Wagner and Jordan (1988)

In some cases, when the mistletoe occupies a large surface of the canapy the host trees die, especially if there is a period of extreme dryness (Brossier 1969).

The influence of mistletoe on artificially infected apple trees was studied in detail by Preston (1977). Trees of different growth characteristics were included in these studies: dwarfing (M.9), semi-dwarfing (M.26), vigorous (M.M.111), and very vigorous (M.25). Nine years after inoculation, host tree size and cropping were reduced on trees with mistletoe on all rootstocks except M.25. Fresh weights of mistletoe vegetation, when related to host tree size, showed an inverse relationship to the known rootstock effects on scion size, trees on the dwarfing M.9 bearing a heavier weight of mistletoe to their size than trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. The crop weight of the apple trees 11 years from planting was reduced between 7 and 56%.

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