Development Of Haustorial System

Mistletoe embryos germinate whilst still in the fruit, but are unable to break through the tough exocarp without help. In nature, birds such as blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) and mistletoe thrush (Turdus viscivorus) remove the seed from the fruit, more or less effectively getting it in contact with the branch of a host (Grazi, 1986). Apart from mucous polysaccharides which in time are washed out, the mesocarp attached to the endocarp contains glutinous substances which firmly attach the seed to...

Diabetes

Treatment of Diabetes mellitus was traditionally relied on dietary measures which included the use of plant therapies. Extracts from mistletoes were used in Nigerian folk medicin (Obatomi et al., 1994) and West Indies (Peters, 1957). In fact, aqueous extracts from the leaves of Loranthus bengwensis L. grown on lemon (Citrus limon L. Brum f., Rutaceae) and guava trees (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) significantly decreased serum glucose levels in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic...

Clinical Results

To treat hypertension and arteriosclerosis, it was recommended to extract Viscum album in cold water overnight (1 tea spoon of the drug per cup of water) and to drink this drug three times a day (Ripperger, 1937), while others used 30-40 g of the drug applied in 1 1 wine (Pic and Bonnamour, 1923). Several reports indicate beneficial effects of Viscum album treatment in patients with hypertension (Goetsch, 1930 Strauss, 1931 Orlowski, 1932 Mattausch, 1938), however, most of them are...

Immunomodulation by Mistletoe

Based on the studies of Koch (1938b) and Seeger (1965a-c), the biological effects of Viscum album are defined not only by direct cytotoxicity, but also indirect immune activation. The first reports that suggest VA-E may modulate the immune response described splenomegaly and increased clearance of colloidal carbon by phagocytes after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of the fermented VA-E Iscador (Zschiesche, 1966 Bloksma et al., 1982) and increased thymus weight in mice (Nienhaus and...

S

* application recommended in the treatment of arthrosis. application recommended in the treatment of hypertension. the multi-vitamines, other treatment strategies were used without the knowledge of the medicals. Another meta-analysis published by Kiene (1989, 1996) scored 41 trials. Sixteen of these studies were reported to have solidity, nine had questionable solidity, and sixteen had no solidity at all. Twelve of the 16 studies with solidity (involving bronchus carcinoma, colorectal...

Flavonoids and Phenylpropanoids

Flavonoids such as quercetin and its derivatives are diphenyl propanoids widely distributed in dietary plants, and also present in Viscum album (see Becker, this book). They are suggested to play a dual role in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In fact, quercetin was recognized to induce apoptosis in various malignant and non-malignant cell lines (Wei et al, 1994 Kuo, 1996 Plaumann et al., 1996 Fujita et al, 1997 Csokay et al., 1997 Weber et al., 1997), but also to exert mutagenic properties, as...

Mistletoe as a Remedy

The intentions of mistletoe uses were manifold and conflicting in several cases. According to the Greek physician and author Dioskorides (15-85 AC), Hippocrates (460-377 BC) used the mistletoe to treat diseases of the spleen and complaints associated with menstruation. Plinius (23-79 AC) reported mistletoe from oak trees, when applied as a chewed pulp, to be beneficial for epilepsy, infertility, and ulcers (Historia naturalis, liber XXIV, 12). Around 150 AC, the Platonist Celsus reported the...

Viscum Album Group

Viscum Album Parts

The greater part of this book is concerned with the biology and uses of Viscum album. Populations extend further into temperate regions than any other species of the genus. The species has a number of remarkable characters, some of which seem to be Table 2 Morphological groups of Asian and Australian species of Viscum. Adapted and updated from Danser 1941 . Monoecious. Inflorescences mostly lateral, with terminal female flower and subsidiary cymules male or female Monoecious. Flowers in triads,...