See Vinegar incidence 4 19*, conc. range 50-2000 g kg, 0 conc. 250 g kg, country France853, *home-made, industrial see also apple flavor, apples (stewed fruit), berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits (pear), fruits (plum), jam, jam (apple), juice, juice (apple), juice (apple-acerola), juice (apple, concentrate), juice (cherry), juice (currant), juice (fruit), juice (grape), juice (orange), juice (peach), juice (pear), must, pulp (plum), syrup (apple), vinegar incidence 3 14, conc. 6-1770 g kg, 0 conc. 607 g kg, country Finland700 see also apple cider, apples (stewed fruit), berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits...
Let's experiment by placing a whole egg, in its shell, in a large transparent container. When it is covered with white vinegar, bubbles soon escape from the shell. Why Because the acetic acid of the vinegar is attacking the calcium carbonate A lighted candle, placed in the container, eventually goes out, a sign that the acid gives off carbon dioxide, which, being denser than air, accumulates in the container, driving out the air (the same thing can be demonstrated more technically by collecting the gas in limewater, which becomes cloudy). Then, after half a day or so, a thin, red surface layer detaches itself from the shell. This is why the eggs have a pink shell the white of the carbonate and the red of this layer combine to produce the final color (at least in the case of French eggs I have heard that eggs in England remain white). Let's continue observing. After one or two days of slow gaseous emission, the egg seems to have gotten bigger. Is this merely an illusion The sequence of...
Vinegar, which is an aqueous solution of at least 4 acetic acid, is the product ofthe oxidation of ethanol by the acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter and Gluconobacter species. Acetic acid bacteria are strictly aerobic, Gram-negative rods, characterized by their ability to carry out a number of oxidations. They can tolerate high concentrations of acid as they oxidize alcohol to acetic acid (acetification). Alcohol is commercially converted to vinegar using processes that provide readily available oxygen to hasten the oxidation reaction. The vinegar generator sprays alcohol onto loosely packed wood shavings that harbor a biofilm of acetic acid bacteria. As the alcohol trickles through the bacteria-coated shavings, it is oxidized to acetic acid. In principle, the vinegar generator operates much like the trickling filter used in waste-water treatment by providing a large surface area for aerobic metabolism. The submerged culture reactor is an enclosed system that continuously pumps small...
Some of our most successfully developed products from sugar cane are our rums and rum liqueurs. The value addition and consequent economic benefits of the rum industry to Jamaica is a good example of the comparison of a successfully developed by-product, with considerable market positioning and segmentation, and sugar itself, a commodity product. Apart from sugar and rum, molasses, alcohol and vinegar are produced from sugar cane. The development of other by-products and use of the waste products in the processing of sugar canes is an area which deserves attention. In addition, there are many inefficiencies in the processing of sugar which reduce profitability. Table 1 gives data on the output of the sugar industry in the years 19992001.
If we compare avocado slices exposed to the oxygen in the air with slices that have first been sprinkled with lemon juice, the difference is plain after a few hours. This confirms the wisdom of customary culinary practice but does not explain why lemon juice has a protective effect. If acidity were responsible, it ought to be possible to substitute vinegar. But this is easily disproven by experiment.
We have learnt a lot about the biological activities of acetic acid bacteria in the past hundred years. Among them are classic but typically important microbial bioconversions for practical use, such as the production of vinegar, D-gluconate, and L-sorbose. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms remains to be clarified. We have been trying to uncover the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms of the respective enzymes in acetic acid bacteria since the 1970s. In this chapter, the properties and characteristics of the individual enzymes involved in oxidative fermentation are exemplified.
Ash and bicarbonate have in common the property of making water basic, or alkaline. To determine whether this alkalinization acts on vegetables, we may begin by cooking lentils in three identical pans over the same heat. In the first pan let's use distilled water as the cooking medium in the second, water made basic by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and in the third, water that has been made acidic by adding a bit of vinegar.
Japanese physical chemists recently provided partial corroboration. Experiments conducted some twenty years ago in France, at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique station in Clermont-Ferrand, showed that beef is tenderized by prolonged immersion in acid solutions, which dissolve collagen and various other proteins principally responsible for the toughness of raw meats while ionizing these proteins, increasing the amount of water they retain. Vinegar is not the sole ingredient of such marinades, however, and the role of wine in particular remained mysterious. Two researchers in the department of home economics at the University of Koshien in Japan, Kazudo Okuda and Ryuzo Ueda, completed the French study after first examining the effect on meats of fermented products such as vinegar and soy sauce. seal the juices of the meat by hardening, or caking, its surface. Classic recipes therefore are justified in recommending that a combination of red wine and acidic liquids, such...
The GI of foods can be modified by changing the nature of starch (e.g. increasing amylopectin or decreasing amylose or by combing starch with protein gluten ) altering cooking methods (e.g. reducing the extent of gela-tinization or cooling to prevent retrogradation) using larger particle or piece size, adding some acids such as those in vinegar and lemon juice adding soluble fibers such as psyllium, or by adding or substituting lactose, fructose, or sucrose for starch or glucose.
A glass of vinegar is undrinkable, but it becomes palatable if one adds a large amount of sugar to it. Yet the pH the acidity of the vinegar measured in terms of the concentration of hydrogen atoms is unchanged. Why is the sensation of acidity weakened Because the perception of tastes depends on the environment in which taste receptors operate. The same interactions take place in the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Chantal Castelain and her colleagues at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique station in Nantes sought to identify these synergies in order to lay the basis for a rational theory of the aromatization of foods.
In the vinegar-based sauces studied, the watery phase of these emulsions consisted of a mixture of wine vinegar, lemon juice, and salt. Drops of sunflower oil were then emulsified in it (that is, kept in a dispersed state) thanks to the action of whey proteins. Finally, a mixture of xanthan (a polymer obtained by microbial fermentation of glucose) and starch was incorporated to stabilize the sauce. To this basic salad dressing the physical chemists added fixed quantities of odorant molecules allyl isothiocyanate, in the oil phase, which yielded a hint of mustard and, in the water phase, phenyl-2-ethanol and ethyl hexano-ate, which gave rose and fruit notes, respectively. When several emulsions were compared each one was found to contain oil droplets of a particular size. A jury of trained tasters evaluated the sauces, noting the intensity of the various accents lemon, vinegar, mustard, and so on.
Finally, the cooking water has its own role to play. Jacques Lefebvre at the inra station in Nantes has shown that the more proteins the water contains, the less amylose the starch loses during cooking. Therefore pasta should be cooked in a rich broth. Moreover, the Montpellier team demonstrated that cooking pasta in mineral water increases the loss of starch content and therefore stickiness as well, whereas pasta cooked in slightly acidified water (through the addition of a tablespoon of vinegar or lemon juice, for example) preserves a satisfactory surface state, even after overcooking. Proteins in water with a pH of 6 have an electrically neutral form, allowing them to combine more easily and form a network that efficiently traps the starch.
Membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in acetic acid bacteria acts on a wide range of aliphatic aldehydes except for formaldehyde. Aldehydes with a carbon chain length of 2-4 are oxidized most rapidly with ALDH from both genera of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter. The enzyme is localized on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of the organisms and has a close topological and functional relation to ADH III. Aldehyde oxidation is linked to the respiratory chain as described for the alcohol oxidase system above. Thus, ALDH acts as vinegar producer sequentially after ADH III in acetic acid bacteria. During alcohol oxidation, no aldehyde liberation is observed under normal culture conditions, indicating that ADH III and ALDH form a multienzyme complex in the bacterial membrane and function sequentially to produce acetate from ethanol. As for ALDH from acetic acid bacteria, the purification and characterization of ALDH have been done with several strains 102-106 .
Probably the biggest culprit on the salad bar line is the salad dressing, with blue cheese and thousand island the worst possible choices. See if they have their dressings labeled, and select a low-calorie or low-fat choice. When in doubt, choose an Italiantype dressing, or oil and vinegar (easy on the oil, liberal with the vinegar). Add a small amount (a tablespoon or less). Another option is to put dressing in a small container on the side, and dip your fork in the dressing with each bite. This usually adds the right amount.
Foodstuff industry use oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram.
Take Maillard reactions between amino acids and certain sugars, which produce the tasty brown compounds in the crust of roast beef and bread as well as the aromas of coffee and chocolate. Chemists know that these reactions differ according to the acidity of the reactional environment. Why not soak chicken breasts in vinegar or bicarbonate of soda before putting them under the broiler To obtain the right degree of acidity once the reaction has occurred, the vinegar could be neutralized with bicarbonate of soda or vice versa.
What happens when one adds oil to a mixture of vinegar, mustard, egg yolk, and salt To the naked eye the preparation is homogeneous, but a microscope shows that the ingredients are not thoroughly mixed together Large oil droplets are dispersed in the small amount of water contributed by the vinegar, mustard (which is itself made with vinegar), and egg yolk. If the oil doesn't float on top but emulsifies instead, this is because the yolk's tensioactive molecules (one part of which is water soluble and the other fat soluble) coat the oil droplets, with the water-soluble part immersing itself in the water and the other part immersing itself in the oil. In egg yolks these molecules are primarily proteins and, in smaller proportion, lecithins. Draped over the droplets of oil in this fashion, the tensioactive molecules prevent them from aggregating. These molecules cannot be seen under the microscope. Nor can the vinegar or the salt, which nonetheless play an important role, enabling the...
Take an egg white and add to it a drop of vinegar, a little salt, and a little pepper. Now slowly at first and then more rapidly add oil while constantly whisking the mixture. A small amount of foam begins to form and then subsides as the oil is incorporated, exactly as in a mayonnaise. After having introduced a large quantity of oil, you have a yolkless mayonnaise.
We have also seen that classic mayonnaises break because they do not have enough water to sustain the dispersion of oil droplets. Verifying this claim experimentally is a simple matter, but it means wasting a lot of oil. Instead try making a large bowl of mayonnaise using only a single drop of egg yolk (the source of the tensioactive material) dissolved in a teaspoon of water (or vinegar if you want to taste the result).
The same thing can be done with cheese. Pour a glass of water or vinegar in a pan, add a sheet of gelatin and a good chunk of cheese (Roquefort, for example), and stir over low heat. The melting cheese forms fatty droplets that are dispersed in the water and covered by the tensioactive molecules of the gelatin. The result is a cheese b arnaise that is a cousin not only of many
Quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH III) is localized on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of the acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter and Gluconobacter. ADH III has the most important role in vinegar production in oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. The acetaldehyde generated is immediately oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase located close to ADH III on the same cytoplasmic membrane. As mentioned elsewhere, most people still believe that ethanol oxidation during vinegar production must be catalyzed by a cytosolic NAD-dependent ADH, even though the discovery of ADH III was reported in 1960s. ADH III catalyzes alcohol oxidation under acidic conditions at pH 3-4, which is a favorable biological environment for vinegar production. It is distinct from the cytosolic NAD-dependent ADH that oxidizes alcohol under fairly alkaline conditions at pH 9-11. When acetic acid bacteria are growing on ethanol, the enzymic activity of the cytosolic NAD-dependent ADH is very...
Microorganisms produce a variety of fermentation products. The products of fermentation of cells are waste products of the cells, but many are useful to humans. These include ethanol (the alcohol that humans can drink, like in beer, wine, and liquor), acetic acid (vinegar), and lactic acid (found in cheese, sauerkraut, and pickles). Other fermentation products are very harmful to humans. An example is the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, which ferments hydrogen and is associated with gas gangrene. Gangrene is involved in necrosis or the death of muscle tissue.
See also apple cider, apple flavor, berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits (pear), fruits (plum), jam, jam (apple), juice, juice (apple), juice (apple-acerola), juice (apple, concentrate), juice (cherry), juice (currant), juice (fruit), juice (grape), juice (orange), juice (peach), juice (pear), must, pulp (plum), syrup (apple), vinegar
Alternative methods of surface sanitizing cantaloupes were examined by Barak et al. 109 . They reported reductions in the bacterial load of 70, 80, and 90 by scrubbing the melons with a vegetable brush in tap water, washing with soap, and dipping in 150 ppm sodium hypochlorite, respectively. However, a three-compartment sanitation method comprising washing with an antimicrobial soap, scrubbing with a brush in tap water, and immersion in a hypochlorite solution resulted in a 99.8 reduction. Population reductions exceeding 5 logs were obtained on cut iceberg lettuce, inoculated with E. coli CDC1932, by washing with diluted vinegar (1.9 acetic acid) in contrast, washing with diluted bleach solution (180 ppm available chlorine) and lemon juice (0.6 citric acid) yielded 1.6 and 2.1 log reductions, respectively 110 . However, the vinegar treatment resulted in some product damage. Application of a solution containing 1.5 lactic acid and 1.5 hydrogen peroxide as a 15-minute soak at 40 C was...
Acetic acid is known for its preservative properties 122 and has been used extensively in foods such as pickles, salad dressing, tomato products, and mustards. Vaporized acetic acid has also shown biocidal effects for decontamination of fruits and vegetables. Researchers have demonstrated that fumigation with acetic acid vapor or vinegar vapor could control postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables such as apples, grapes, stonefruit (peaches, nectarines, and apricots), strawberries, oranges, kiwifruit, tomatoes, and coleslaw made from cabbage 123-127 . They also demonstrated that fumigation treatments with 242 ppm (v v) gaseous acetic acid in air for 24 hours at 22 C or for 12 hours at 45 C could reduce 3 to 5 log CFU g Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157 H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on mung bean seed without significant reduction of seed germination rates 128 . Recently, Sapers et al. 43 evaluated the use of pressurized acetic acid vapor to decontaminate apples inoculated with E....
Shake the pan gently. The result is a smooth, thick sauce that under the microscope can be seen to be composed of droplets dispersed in water (for a sharper taste one can substitute vinegar for the water and reduce it over high heat). This preparation we may call a cheese b arnaise.
If the dissolution of the shell and the coagulation of the albumen are simply explained, it may seem less clear why dilation occurs. Could it be that osmosis is responsible for the increase in size Water molecules tend to go from areas where they are most concentrated to areas of least concentration. Whereas the water concentration is about 95 in the vinegar, it reaches only 90 in the egg white. Moreover, whereas the acetic acid migrates toward the interior of the white (this can be verified by measuring the acidity of an egg white that has sat for several weeks in vinegar), the protein molecules dissolved in the water of the whites are too large to pass through the coagulated membrane. In other words, the water of the vinegar enters into the albumen, increasing the water concentration inside the egg.
Fermented foods are predigested by bacteria, yeast, and molds that change the composition of the food. As part of a daily diet, they encourage the production of beneficial bacteria in the intestine that are necessary for complete and proper digestion, a strong immune system, and as an aid to the production of anticancer compounds. Fermented foods include yogurt with live active cultures, kefir, miso, tempeh, soy sauce, umeboshi, amasake, kombucha, natto, and apple cider and brown rice vinegars. Miso is a fermented paste made from soybeans. It can be used as a bouillon and as a replacement for salt, soy sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Simmer for no longer than 1 minute to preserve the microorganisms. Natto is fermented soybeans and can be used as a condiment with rice, pasta, and other grains or added to soups. Tempeh is fermented soybeans and has a meaty taste that can substitute for burgers and meat in other dishes. It can be fried, grilled, baked, broiled, or steamed. Umeboshi is...
Foods that contain fat and those of an acidic nature like oranges, lemons, vinegar, and sourdough breads, delay the emptying time of the stomach resulting in slower digestion and absorption of a meal. Because fat takes longer for the the stomach to digest, potato chips or french fries, for example, have a lower glycemic index than baked potatoes. Table sugar, because it is not pure glucose but contains two molecules, one glucose and one fructose, takes longer to digest than some starches. Nuts and meats contain little or no carbohydrate and, when combined with starches and sugars, will slow down digestion and absorption. Combining low GI and high GI foods at the same meal will moderate blood sugar levels.
The Miracle Of Vinegar
You may be forgiven for thinking that these passed down secrets had gone for good, washed away with time and the modern age, But they're not. You can now own three of the best traditional did you know style reports that were much loved by our parents and grandparents. And they were pretty smart too because not only will these reports save you time and money but they'll also help you eliminate some of the scourges of modern day living such as harmful chemical usage in the home.