Periosteal Chondroma

This is an uncommon mature cartilage lesion, which is located underneath the periosteum and does not involve the medullary cavity. This hyaline cartilage tumor is lobulated with variable cellularity of chondrocytes. The lobules may be separated by fibrous tissue or mature lamellar

FIGURE 9 Osteochondroma. A moderately cellular hyaline cartilage cap is covered by thin fibrous perichondrium. Cancellous bone with endochondral ossification is present underlying cap with adjacent fatty bone marrow (hematoxylin and eosin, original magnification x 4).
FIGURE 10 Enchondroma. Bland, mildly cellular hyaline cartilage with evenly distributed cells. This circumscribed lesion is bounded by lamellar bone (hematoxylin and eosin, original magnification x 10).

bone. In addition to hypercellular areas, chondrocytes may be binucleated, enlarged, or hyper-chromatic. Myxoid change within the matrix can occur. The differential diagnosis would again focus on a possible chondrosarcoma in this location. In general, there is more cytologic atypia seen throughout the lesion compared to periosteal chondroma. Individual cases may show some overlap (46,47).

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