Renal Arteriography

Not only is angiography considered the gold or reference standard for the diagnosis of RAS and the yardstick against which the other tests are measured, but it also allows treatment at the same sitting (Fig. 7A,B). The use of narrow-bore 3F catheters allow it to be performed as an outpatient procedure. However, it still carries the risks of arterial catheterization, namely groin hematoma, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, arterial pseudoaneurysm, and dissection. Angiography is performed via a common femoral artery (or brachial artery) puncture, with a pigtail flush catheter positioned just above the level of the renal arteries. This minimizes obscuration of the renal arteries from filling of mesenteric vessels. Left and right anterior oblique

Table 6 Results for Captopril Renography in the Detection of RAS

Study

Number of patients

Sensitivity (%)

Specificity (%)

Ref. 53

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