Specific treatment recommendations for atypical mycobacterial infections are not available because of their infrequent nature. Treatment is guided by the results of special susceptibility testing of any culture isolates.

Agents effective against M. avium complex include clarithromycin or azithromycin, rifabutin, and the fluoroquinolones. M. fortuitum infections are typically treated by surgical debridement and adjunctive antimicrobial therapy with one or more of the following agents: cefoxitin, amikacin, imipenem, TMP/

SMX, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and azithromycin or clarithromycin. Agents active against M. kansasii include isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. No specific recommendations are available for the prevention of atypical mycobacterial infections in the transplant recipient.

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